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Gomes E.R.,Centro Hospitalar do Porto | Brockow K.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Kuyucu S.,Mersin University | Saretta F.,Hospital of Palmanova | And 6 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2016

When questioned, about 10% of the parents report suspected hypersensitivity to at least one drug in their children. However, only a few of these reactions can be confirmed as allergic after a diagnostic workup. There is still a lack of knowledge on drug hypersensitivity (DH) epidemiology, clinical spectrum, and appropriate diagnostic methods particularly in children. Meanwhile, the tools used for DH management in adults are applied also for children. Whereas this appears generally acceptable, some aspects of DH and management differ with age. Most reactions in children are still attributed to betalactams. Some manifestations, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated angioedema and serum sickness-like reactions, are more frequent among young patients as compared to adults. Risk factors such as viral infections are particularly frequent in children, making the diagnosis challenging. The practicability and validity of skin test and other diagnostic procedures need further assessment in children. This study presents an up-to-date review on epidemiology, clinical spectrum, diagnostic tools, and current management of DH in children. A new general algorithm for the study of these reactions in children is proposed. Data are presented focusing on reported differences between pediatric and adult patients, also identifying unmet needs to be addressed in further research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Schlotawa L.,University of Gottingen | Ennemann E.C.,Bielefeld University | Radhakrishnan K.,Bielefeld University | Schmidt B.,University of Gottingen | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

Multiple Sulfatase Deficiency (MSD) is caused by mutations in the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene encoding the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). FGE post translationally activates all newly synthesized sulfatases by generating the catalytic residue formylglycine. Impaired FGE function leads to reduced sulfatase activities. Patients display combined clinical symptoms of single sulfatase deficiencies. For ten MSD patients, we determined the clinical phenotype, FGE expression, localization and stability, as well as residual FGE and sulfatase activities. A neonatal, very severe clinical phenotype resulted from a combination of two nonsense mutations leading to almost fully abrogated FGE activity, highly unstable FGE protein and nearly undetectable sulfatase activities. A late infantile mild phenotype resulted from FGE G263V leading to unstable protein but high residual FGE activity. Other missense mutations resulted in a late infantile severe phenotype because of unstable protein with low residual FGE activity. Patients with identical mutations displayed comparable clinical phenotypes. These data confirm the hypothesis that the phenotypic outcome in MSD depends on both residual FGE activity as well as protein stability. Predicting the clinical course in case of molecularly characterized mutations seems feasible, which will be helpful for genetic counseling and developing therapeutic strategies aiming at enhancement of FGE. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Mueller J.K.,Hannover Medical School | Dietzel A.,University of Leipzig | Lomniczi A.,Oregon Health And Science University | Loche A.,Oregon Health And Science University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Kisspeptin, the product of the KiSS1 gene, has emerged as a key component of the mechanism by which the hypothalamus controls puberty and reproductive development. It does so by stimulating the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH). Little is known about the transcriptional control of the KiSS1 gene. Here we show that a set of proteins postulated to be upstream components of a hypothalamic network involved in controlling female puberty regulates KiSS1 transcriptional activity. Using RACE-PCR we determined that transcription of KiSS1 mRNA is initiated at a single transcription start site (TSS) located 153-156. bp upstream of the ATG translation initiation codon. Promoter assays performed using 293 MSR cells showed that the KiSS1 promoter is activated by TTF1 and CUX1-p200, and repressed by EAP1, YY1, and CUX1-p110. EAP1 and CUX-110 were also repressive in GT1-7 cells. All four TFs are recruited in vivo to the KiSS1 promoter and are expressed in kisspeptin neurons. These results suggest that expression of the KiSS1 gene is regulated by trans-activators and repressors involved in the system-wide control of mammalian puberty. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Hulur I.,University of Chicago | Hermanns P.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Nestoris C.,Endokrinologikum | Heger S.,Childrens Hospital Auf Der Bult | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Context: Dual oxidases (DUOX1 and DUOX2) play a crucial role in the generation of hydrogen peroxide required in the oxidation of iodide and the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Heterodimerization with specific maturation factors (DUOXA1 and DUOXA2) is essential for the maturation and function of the DUOX enzyme complexes. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations of DUOX2 result in congenital hypothyroidism (CH), whereas a single reported case of homozygous DUOXA2 mutation (Y246X) has been associated with mild CH. Objective: We now report an infant with transient CH due to a complex genetic alteration of the DUOX/DUOXA system. Results: Our patient was born to euthyroid nonconsanguineous parents and presented with an elevated TSH and enlarged thyroid gland at neonatal screening. Genetic analysis revealed a missense mutation (C189R) on the maternal DUOXA2 allele. The mutant DUOXA2 protein showed complete loss-of-function in reconstituting DUOX2 in vitro. The apparent C189R homozygosity of the proband in the absence of the same mutation in the father led to detailed gene mapping, revealing an approximately 43-kb pair deletion encompassing DUOX2, DUOXA1, and DUOXA2. Thus, in addition to being deficient in DUOXA2, the proband lacks one allele of DUOX2 and DUOXA1 but has two functioning DUOX1 alleles. Conclusion: The transient CH in the presence of only one functional maturation factor allele indicates a high level of functional redundancy in the DUOX/DUOXA system. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society.

Philotheou A.,University of Cape Town | Arslanian S.,University of Pittsburgh | Blatniczky L.,Buda Childrens Hospital | Peterkova V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2011

Background: We compared the efficacy and safety of insulin glulisine with insulin lispro as part of a basal-bolus regimen in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Overall, 572 children and adolescents (4-17 years old) using insulin glargine or neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin as basal insulin were enrolled in a 26-week, multicenter, open, centrally randomized, parallel-group, noninferiority study. Subjects were randomized to receive glulisine (n=277) or lispro (n=295) 0-15min premeal. Results: Baseline-to-endpoint hemoglobin A1c changes were similar between the two insulins: adjusted mean change (glulisine vs. lispro), 0.10% versus 0.16%; between-treatment difference (glulisine-lispro), &minsu;0.06, 95% confidence interval (-0.24; 0.12); and prespecified noninferiority margin, 0.4%. Overall, for all age groups together, the percentage of patients achieving American Diabetes Association age-specific A1c targets at endpoint was significantly higher (P=0.039) with glulisine (38.4%) versus lispro (32.0%). From Month 4 to endpoint, both "all" and "severe" symptomatic hypoglycemia rates were similar (3.10 vs. 2.91 and 0.06 vs. 0.07 events/patient-month, respectively). Frequency and type of adverse events, serious adverse events, or hypoglycemia reported as serious adverse events were similar between both groups. Conclusions: Glulisine was as effective as lispro in baseline-to-endpoint A1c change, and both treatments were similarly well tolerated. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011.

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