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Ivanova E.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | De Leo M.G.,Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine | Van Den Heuvel L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Den Heuvel L.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Nephropathic cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding cystine transporter cystinosin that results in accumulation of amino acid cystine in the lysosomes throughout the body and especially affects kidneys. Early manifestations of the disease include renal Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction. Current therapy of cystinosis is based on cystine-lowering drug cysteamine that postpones the disease progression but offers no cure for the Fanconi syndrome.We studied the mechanisms of impaired reabsorption in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) deficient for cystinosin and investigated the endo-lysosomal compartments of cystinosin-deficient PTEC by means of light and electron microscopy. We demonstrate that cystinosin-deficient cells had abnormal shape and distribution of the endo-lysosomal compartments and impaired endocytosis, with decreased surface expression of multiligand receptors and delayed lysosomal cargo processing. Treatment with cysteamine improved surface expression and lysosomal cargo processing but did not lead to a complete restoration and had no effect on the abnormal morphology of endo-lysosomal compartments. The obtained results improve our understanding of the mechanism of proximal tubular dysfunction in cystinosis and indicate that impaired protein reabsorption can, at least partially, be explained by abnormal trafficking of endosomal vesicles. © 2015 Ivanova et al.


Ivanova E.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | van Den Heuvel L.P.,Catholic University of Leuven | van Den Heuvel L.P.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Elmonem M.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2016

Lysosomes play a central role in regulating autophagy via activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We examined mTORC1 signalling in the lysosomal storage disease nephropathic cystinosis (MIM 219800), in which accumulation of autophagy markers has been previously demonstrated. Cystinosis is caused by mutations in the lysosomal cystine transporter cystinosin and initially affects kidney proximal tubules causing renal Fanconi syndrome, followed by a gradual development of end-stage renal disease and extrarenal complications. Using proximal tubular kidney cells obtained from healthy donors and from cystinotic patients, we demonstrate that cystinosin deficiency is associated with a perturbed mTORC1 signalling, delayed reactivation of mTORC1 after starvation and abnormal lysosomal retention of mTOR during starvation. These effects could not be reversed by treatment with cystine-depleting drug cysteamine. Altered mTORC1 signalling can contribute to the development of proximal tubular dysfunction in cystinosis and points to new possibilities in therapeutic intervention through modulation of mTORC-dependent signalling cascades. © 2016 SSIEM


PubMed | Catholic University of Leuven, Childrens Hospital and Research Institute Bambino Gesu IRCCS, Radboud University Nijmegen and Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Nephropathic cystinosis is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the CTNS gene encoding cystine transporter cystinosin that results in accumulation of amino acid cystine in the lysosomes throughout the body and especially affects kidneys. Early manifestations of the disease include renal Fanconi syndrome, a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction. Current therapy of cystinosis is based on cystine-lowering drug cysteamine that postpones the disease progression but offers no cure for the Fanconi syndrome. We studied the mechanisms of impaired reabsorption in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) deficient for cystinosin and investigated the endo-lysosomal compartments of cystinosin-deficient PTEC by means of light and electron microscopy. We demonstrate that cystinosin-deficient cells had abnormal shape and distribution of the endo-lysosomal compartments and impaired endocytosis, with decreased surface expression of multiligand receptors and delayed lysosomal cargo processing. Treatment with cysteamine improved surface expression and lysosomal cargo processing but did not lead to a complete restoration and had no effect on the abnormal morphology of endo-lysosomal compartments. The obtained results improve our understanding of the mechanism of proximal tubular dysfunction in cystinosis and indicate that impaired protein reabsorption can, at least partially, be explained by abnormal trafficking of endosomal vesicles.


PubMed | Hospital Pharmacy Unit and Childrens Hospital and Research Institute Bambino Gesu IRCCS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomedical chromatography : BMC | Year: 2016

Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the adults. In pediatrics, PAH treatment options include the off-label use of sildenafil. Sildenafil is metabolized in the liver by cytocrome P450 into its active metabolite, N-desmethyl sildenafil. The determination of plasma levels of sildenafil and N-desmethyl sildenafil could be useful for therapy optimization and pharmacokinetic studies. We have developed and validated a method for the quantification of sildenafil and its metabolite in plasma of children by rapid extraction, using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The calibration range was fitted at least square model (r


PubMed | Catholic University of Leuven and Childrens Hospital and Research Institute Bambino Gesu IRCCS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of inherited metabolic disease | Year: 2016

Lysosomes play a central role in regulating autophagy via activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). We examined mTORC1 signalling in the lysosomal storage disease nephropathic cystinosis (MIM 219800), in which accumulation of autophagy markers has been previously demonstrated. Cystinosis is caused by mutations in the lysosomal cystine transporter cystinosin and initially affects kidney proximal tubules causing renal Fanconi syndrome, followed by a gradual development of end-stage renal disease and extrarenal complications. Using proximal tubular kidney cells obtained from healthy donors and from cystinotic patients, we demonstrate that cystinosin deficiency is associated with a perturbed mTORC1 signalling, delayed reactivation of mTORC1 after starvation and abnormal lysosomal retention of mTOR during starvation. These effects could not be reversed by treatment with cystine-depleting drug cysteamine. Altered mTORC1 signalling can contribute to the development of proximal tubular dysfunction in cystinosis and points to new possibilities in therapeutic intervention through modulation of mTORC-dependent signalling cascades.

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