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Navid F.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Navid F.,University of Tennessee Health Science Center | Sondel P.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Barfield R.,Duke University | And 21 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2014

Purpose: The addition of immunotherapy, including a combination of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), ch14.18, and cytokines, improves outcome for patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. However, this therapy is limited by ch14.18-related toxicities that may be partially mediated by complement activation. We report the results of a phase I trial to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety profile, and pharmacokinetics of hu14.18K322A, a humanized anti-GD2 mAb with a single point mutation (K322A) that reduces complement-dependent lysis. Patients and Methods: Eligible patients with refractory or recurrent neuroblastoma received escalating doses of hu14.18K322A ranging from 2 to 70 mg/m2 per day for 4 consecutive days every 28 days (one course). Results: Thirty-eight patients (23 males; median age, 7.2 years) received a median of two courses (range, one to 15). Dose-limiting grade 3 or 4 toxicities occurred in four of 36 evaluable patients and were characterized by cough, asthenia, sensory neuropathy, anorexia, serum sickness, and hypertensive encephalopathy. The most common non-dose-limiting grade 3 or 4 toxicities during course one were pain (68%) and fever (21%). Six of 31 patients evaluable for response by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine score had objective responses (four complete responses; two partial responses). The first-course pharmacokinetics of hu14.18K322A were best described by a two-compartment linear model. Median hu14.18K322A α (initial phase) and β (terminal phase) half-lives were 1.74 and 21.1 days, respectively. Conclusion: The MTD, and recommended phase II dose, of hu14.18K322A is 60 mg/m2 per day for 4 days. Adverse effects, predominately pain, were manageable and improved with subsequent courses. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. Source

Allay J.A.,Childrens GMP | Sleep S.,Childrens GMP | Long S.,Childrens GMP | Tillman D.M.,Childrens GMP | And 8 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy | Year: 2011

To generate sufficient clinical-grade vector to support a phase I/II clinical trial of adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8)-mediated factor IX (FIX) gene transfer for hemophilia B, we have developed a large-scale, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible method for vector production and purification. We used a 293T-based two-plasmid transient transfection system coupled with a three-column chromatography purification process to produce high-quality self-complementary AAV2/8 FIX clinical-grade vector. Two consecutive production campaigns using a total of 432 independent 10-stack culture chambers produced a total of ∼2×1015 vector genomes (VG) by dot-blot hybridization. Benzonase-treated microfluidized lysates generated from pellets of transfected cells were purified by group separation on Sepharose beads followed by anion-exchange chromatography. The virus-containing fractions were further processed by gel filtration and ultrafiltration, using a 100-kDa membrane. The vector was formulated in phosphate-buffered saline plus 0.25% human serum albumin. Spectrophotometric analysis suggested ∼20% full particles, with only low quantities of nonviral proteins were visible on silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. A sensitive assay for the detection of replication-competent AAV was developed, which did reveal trace quantities of such contaminants in the final product. Additional studies have confirmed the long-term stability of the vector at -80°C for at least 24 months and for at least 24hr formulated in the clinical diluent and stored at room temperature within intravenous bags. This material has been approved for use in clinical trials in the United States and the United Kingdom. © 2011 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Nathwani A.C.,University College London | Nathwani A.C.,Katharine Dormandy Haemophilia Center | Tuddenham E.G.D.,Katharine Dormandy Haemophilia Center | Rangarajan S.,Basingstoke and North Hampshire NHS Foundation Trust | And 30 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Hemophilia B, an X-linked disorder, is ideally suited for gene therapy. We investigated the use of a new gene therapy in patients with the disorder. METHODS: We infused a single dose of a serotype-8-pseudotyped, self-complementary adenovirus- associated virus (AAV) vector expressing a codon-optimized human factor IX (FIX) transgene (scAAV2/8-LP1-hFIXco) in a peripheral vein in six patients with severe hemophilia B (FIX activity, <1% of normal values). Study participants were enrolled sequentially in one of three cohorts (given a high, intermediate, or low dose of vector), with two participants in each group. Vector was administered without immunosuppressive therapy, and participants were followed for 6 to 16 months. RESULTS: AAV-mediated expression of FIX at 2 to 11% of normal levels was observed in all participants. Four of the six discontinued FIX prophylaxis and remained free of spontaneous hemorrhage; in the other two, the interval between prophylactic injections was increased. Of the two participants who received the high dose of vector, one had a transient, asymptomatic elevation of serum aminotransferase levels, which was associated with the detection of AAV8-capsid-specific T cells in the peripheral blood; the other had a slight increase in liver-enzyme levels, the cause of which was less clear. Each of these two participants received a short course of glucocorticoid therapy, which rapidly normalized aminotransferase levels and maintained FIX levels in the range of 3 to 11% of normal values. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral-vein infusion of scAAV2/8-LP1-hFIXco resulted in FIX transgene expression at levels sufficient to improve the bleeding phenotype, with few side effects. Although immune-mediated clearance of AAV-transduced hepatocytes remains a concern, this process may be controlled with a short course of glucocorticoids without loss of transgene expression. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00979238.) Copyright © 2011 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

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