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Gilbert-Diamond D.,Childrens Environmental Health And Disease Prevention Center At Dartmouth | Baker E.R.,Childrens Environmental Health And Disease Prevention Center At Dartmouth | Baker E.R.,Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center | Korrick S.A.,Childrens Environmental Health And Disease Prevention Center At Dartmouth | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2016

Background: Studies suggest that arsenic exposure influences birth outcomes; however, findings are mixed. oBjective: We assessed in utero arsenic exposure in relation to birth outcomes and whether maternal prepregnancy weight and infant sex modified the associations. Methods: Among 706 mother-infant pairs exposed to low levels of arsenic through drinking water and diet, we assessed in utero arsenic exposure using maternal second-trimester urinary arsenic, maternal prepregnancy weight through self-report, and birth outcomes from medical records. results: Median (interquartile range) of total urinary arsenic [tAs; inorganic arsenic (iAs) + monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) + dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] was 3.4 μg/L (1.7-6.0). In adjusted linear models, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.10-cm decrease (95% CI:-0.19,-0.01) in head circumference. Results were similar for MMA and DMA. Ln(tAs) and ln(DMA) were positively associated with birth length in infant males only; among males, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.28-cm increase (95% CI: 0.09, 0.46) in birth length (pinteraction = 0.04). Results were similar for DMA. Additionally, arsenic exposure was inversely related to ponderal index, and associations differed by maternal weight. Each ln(tAs) doubling of tAs was associated with a 0.55-kg/m3 lower (95% CI:-0.82,-0.28, p < 0.001) ponderal index for infants of overweight/obese, but not normal-weight, mothers (pinteraction < 0.01). Finally, there was a significant inter action between maternal weight status, infant sex, and arsenic exposure on birth weight (pinteraction = 0.03). In girls born of overweight/obese mothers, each doubling of tAs was associated with a 62.9-g decrease (95% CI:-111.6,-14.2) in birth weight, though the association was null in the other strata. conclusions: Low-level arsenic exposure may affect fetal growth, and the associations may be modified by maternal weight status and infant sex. © 2016, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.

Saxena R.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Saxena R.,Cambridge Broad Institute | Elbers C.C.,University of Pennsylvania | Elbers C.C.,University Utrecht | And 166 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with ∼2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis of 25 studies comprising 14,073 cases and 57,489 controls of European descent confirmed eight established T2D loci at genome-wide significance. In silico follow-up analysis of putative association signals found in independent genome-wide association studies (including 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls) performed by the DIAGRAM consortium identified a T2D locus at genome-wide significance (GATAD2A/CILP2/PBX4; p = 5.7 × 10 -9) and two loci exceeding study-wide significance (SREBF1, and TH/INS; p < 2.4 × 10 -6). Second, meta-analyses of 1,986 cases and 7,695 controls from eight African-American studies identified study-wide-significant (p = 2.4 × 10 -7) variants in HMGA2 and replicated variants in TCF7L2 (p = 5.1 × 10 -15). Third, conditional analysis revealed multiple known and novel independent signals within five T2D-associated genes in samples of European ancestry and within HMGA2 in African-American samples. Fourth, a multiethnic meta-analysis of all 39 studies identified T2D-associated variants in BCL2 (p = 2.1 × 10 -8). Finally, a composite genetic score of SNPs from new and established T2D signals was significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes in African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. In summary, large-scale meta-analysis involving a dense gene-centric approach has uncovered additional loci and variants that contribute to T2D risk and suggests substantial overlap of T2D association signals across multiple ethnic groups. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Gilbert-Diamond D.,Childrens Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Center at Dartmouth | Cottingham K.L.,Childrens Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Center at Dartmouth | Cottingham K.L.,Dartmouth College | Gruber J.F.,Childrens Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Center at Dartmouth | And 10 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2011

Emerging data indicate that rice consumption may lead to potentially harmful arsenic exposure. However, few human data are available, and virtually none exist for vulnerable periods such as pregnancy. Here we document a positive association between rice consumption and urinary arsenic excretion, a biomarker of recent arsenic exposure, in 229 pregnant women. At a 6-mo prenatal visit, we collected a urine sample and 3-d dietary record for water, fish/seafood, and rice. We also tested women's home tap water for arsenic, which we combined with tap water consumption to estimate arsenic exposure through water. Women who reported rice intake (n = 73) consumed a median of 28.3 g/d, which is ∼0.5 cup of cooked rice each day. In general linear models adjusted for age and urinary dilution, both rice consumption (g, dry mass/d) and arsenic exposure through water (μg/d)were significantly associated with natural log-transformed total urinary arsenic (β rice= 0.009, β water = 0.028, both P < 0.0001), as well as inorganic arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid (each P < 0.005). Based on total arsenic, consumption of 0.56 cup/d of cooked rice was comparable to drinking 1 L/d of 10 μg As/L water, the current US maximum contaminant limit. US rice consumption varies, averaging ∼0.5 cup/d, with Asian Americans consuming an average of >2 cups/d. Rice arsenic content and speciation also vary, with some strains predominated by dimethylarsinic acid, particularly those grown in the United States. Our findings along with others indicate that rice consumption should be considered when designing arsenic reduction strategies in the United States.

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