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Abdelaziz D.H.A.,Helwan University | Ali S.A.,Helwan University | Mostafa M.M.A.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2015

Context: In Arabic folk medicine, the seeds of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae) have been used to manage diabetes for many years. Few studies have reported the antidiabetic effect of P. dactylifera seeds; however, their effect on diabetic complications is still unexplored. Objective: The present study investigates the protective effect of P. dactylifera seeds against diabetic complications in rats. Material and methods: The aqueous suspension of P. dactylifera seeds (aqPDS) (1g/kg/d) was orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for 4 weeks. The serum biochemical parameters were assessed spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, oxidative stress was examined in both liver and kidney tissues by assessment of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase, and catalase. Results: Oral administration of aqPDS significantly ameliorated the elevated levels of glucose (248±42 versus 508±60mg/dl), urea (32±3.3 versus 48.3±5.6mg/dl), creatinine (2.2±0.35 versus 3.8±0.37mg/dl), ALT (29.6±3.9 versus 46.4±5.9IU/l), and AST (73.3±13 versus 127.8±18.7IU/l) compared with the untreated diabetic rats. In addition to significant augmentation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, there was reduction in TBARS and NO levels and improvement of histopathological architecture of the liver and kidney of diabetic rats. Discussion and conclusion: The aqPDS showed potential protective effects against early diabetic complications of both liver and kidney. This effect may be explained by the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capabilities of P. dactylifera seeds. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

Brastianos P.K.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Brastianos P.K.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Taylor-Weiner A.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard | Manley P.E.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | And 49 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2014

Craniopharyngiomas are epithelial tumors that typically arise in the suprasellar region of the brain. Patients experience substantial clinical sequelae from both extension of the tumors and therapeutic interventions that damage the optic chiasm, the pituitary stalk and the hypothalamic area. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified mutations in CTNNB1 (β-catenin) in nearly all adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas examined (11/12, 92%) and recurrent mutations in BRAF (resulting in p.Val600Glu) in all papillary craniopharyngiomas (3/3, 100%). Targeted genotyping revealed BRAF p.Val600Glu in 95% of papillary craniopharyngiomas (36 of 39 tumors) and mutation of CTNNB1 in 96% of adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas (51 of 53 tumors). The CTNNB1 and BRAF mutations were clonal in each tumor subtype, and we detected no other recurrent mutations or genomic aberrations in either subtype. Adamantinomatous and papillary craniopharyngiomas harbor mutations that are mutually exclusive and clonal. These findings have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of these neoplasms. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. Source

Hassan W.M.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt | Alfaar A.S.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt | Alfaar A.S.,Cairo University | Alfaar A.S.,University of Ulm | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2014

Introduction: There is a wide range of tumors affecting the orbital adnexa. Key such tumors include lymphomas, carcinomas, melanomas and rhabdomyosarcomas. Several studies have proposed that these histological subtypes differ in their survival outcomes. In this study we aim to describe the difference in survival outcomes between such subtypes. Methods: The SEER database was used to gather patient information. All 18 SEER registries were used. Patients diagnosed from 1996 to 2005 were included in the analysis. Observed five-year survival rate was calculated using the SEER*Stat software version 8.1.2. Data were extracted into IBM SPSS version 20 to generate Kaplan Meier curve for each group. Results: There were 2180 patients in the SEER databases who met the selection criteria. Lymphomas were the most common histology in adults. The overall five-year observed survival for all lymphoma patients was 75.9% (95% CI: 73.7-78.1). There was statistically significant difference between observed survival rates of lymphoma subtypes. Carcinomas were the second most common tumors. Their five-year observed survival rate in our study was 60.4%. There was no statistically significant difference between carcinoma subtypes' observed survival rates in the 20-49 age group, while, in the older age group, the difference was found to be statistically significant. Rhabdomyosarcomas were the most common tumors in children. The overall five-year observed survival rate for rhabdomyosarcomas patients was 89.8%. There was no statistically significant difference between observed survival rates of rhabdomyosarcomas subtypes. There was no statistically significant difference between relative survival rates according to gender and treatment received except within melanomas. Conclusion: In adults, lymphomas have better survival rates than carcinomas. Whereas the lymphoma subtype can be used as a determinant prognostic factor in any age, the carcinoma subtype can be used as such a determinant in older age groups only. In children, rhabdomyosarcomas are the predominant tumors affecting the orbital adnexa. Further studies are needed to determine if the difference between embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma observed survival rates are statistically significant. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Zekri W.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt | Alfaar A.S.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt | Alfaar A.S.,University of Ulm | Yehia D.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt | And 6 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) is a rare and aggressive tumor accounting for 5% of pediatric renal tumors with an incidence of 20 patients per year in the USA. It is bone metastasizing with poor prognosis. Our aim was to show characteristics of patients in relation to improved outcome in one of the developing countries. Procedure: We included all patients diagnosed as CCSK in the period between July 2007 and March 2012 at Children's Cancer Hospital, Egypt. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, pathology, and management were reviewed. Follow up was continued until April 2013. Results: Twenty-five patients were identified in the defined time interval, accounting for 7% all renal tumors diagnosed at the hospital. Mean age was 36 months. Abdominal swelling and hematuria were the most common presentations. Stages I, II, III, IV, and V represented 9 (36%), 3 (12%), 8 (32%), 3 (12%), and 2 (8%), respectively. Twenty-four patients had radical nephrectomy either upfront or after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Surgery was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Abdominal radiotherapy was given for local stages II and III. Twenty-two patients reached complete remission, while one patient had stationary disease and two patients died due to progression and relapse. Overall survival was 88.5% and event-free survival was 87.8% at 45 months. Conclusion: Although previous studies indicate poor prognosis of CCSK, our experience shows that those patients can be treated using extensive chemotherapy combined with proper local control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Zomor H.E.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt | Zomor H.E.,Cairo University | Nour R.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt | Alieldin A.,Childrens Cancer Hospital Egypt | And 12 more authors.
Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015

Purpose: To study the presenting signs of Retinoblastoma in Egypt at Egypt's main pediatric oncology referral center. Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study (hospital-based registry) conducted at Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt between July 2007 and December 2012. Results: Out of 262 patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma, 244 were suffering from intra-ocular disease at presentation. One hundred thirty-nine (57%) patients presented with unilateral disease, while 105 (43%) suffered bilateral disease. The mean age at presentation was 20.6 ± 17 months, averaging 18.87. ± 11.76 months for bilateral and 25.72 ± 18.78 months for unilateral disease. The most common clinical presentation was leukocoria in 180 (73.8%) patients, strabismus in 32 (13.1%) patients and decreased visual acuity in 12 (4.9%) patients. Group D and E disease represented 62% of all affected eyes. Patients with advanced disease (Group C-E) had longer duration of symptoms. Conclusion: In Egypt, retinoblastoma patients present more frequently with advanced disease. There is an ever-increasing need to develop a national team dedicated to studying disease significance and formulating a national awareness program. © 2015 The Authors. Source

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