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Gatz S.A.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | Thway K.,The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | Mandeville H.,The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | Kerawala C.,Head and Neck Unit | And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Blood and Cancer | Year: 2015

Ameloblastic fibro-odontosarcoma (AFOS) is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. Deaths due to disease recurrence and/or progression are documented. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old female with multiple recurrent AFOS. She responded to chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin consolidated by stereotactic reirradiation using cyberknife and remained in complete remission 14 months from the end of reirradiation therapy. Chemotherapy with ifosfamide and doxorubicin should be considered in advanced cases of AFOS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Hospital Nino Jesus and Children and Young Peoples Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric blood & cancer | Year: 2016

RECIST guidelines constitute the reference for radiological response assessment in most paediatric trials of anticancer agents. However, these criteria have not been validated in children. We evaluated the outcomes and patterns of progression of children/adolescents enrolled in phase I trials in two paediatric drug development units.Patients aged 21 assessed with RECIST (v1.0 or v1.1) were eligible. Clinico-radiological data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U and log-rank tests to correlate response categories and sum of longest diameters (SLD) with time-to-event variables and overall survival (OS).Sixty-one patients (71 enrolments) were evaluated; median age: 12.7 years (range, 3.1-20.9). Overall, 7% achieved complete/partial response (n = 5) and 31% disease stabilisation (n = 22). Median (95% CI) OS (in months) was 29.1 (27.6-30.6) with complete/partial response, 8.9 (2.0-15.8) with stable disease and 2.8 (2.3-3.3) with disease progression (P < 0.001); 32.6% patients with measurable disease presented exclusive progression of existing non-target lesions and/or new lesions. The change in SLD at best response showed a linear correlation with duration of response (r = -0.605; P = 0.004) and time on trial (r = -0.61; P = 0.003), but the change in SLD at progression did not correlate with time to progression (r = -0.219; P = 0.206).Response assessment according to RECIST correlated with OS in children/adolescents treated on phase I trials. The reduction in SLD at best response correlated with more prolonged responses. Tumour size did not constitute an optimal method to assess disease progression in one third of patients with measurable disease. Further refinement of current response assessment guidelines will enable the development of paediatric-specific radiological criteria.


PubMed | Cancer Research UK Research Institute, Royal Manchester Childrens Hospital and Children and Young Peoples Unit
Type: | Journal: Pediatric blood & cancer | Year: 2016

Long-term toxicities from current treatments are a major issue in paediatric cancer. Previous studies, including our own, have shown prognostic value for the presence of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion genes in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). It is proposed to introduce PAX3/7-FOXO1 positivity as a component of risk stratification, rather than alveolar histology, in future clinical trials.To assess the potential impact of this reclassification, we have determined the changes to risk category assignment of 210 histologically reviewed patients treated in the UK from previous malignant mesenchymal tumour clinical trials for non-metastatic RMS based on identification of PAX3/7-FOXO1 by fluorescence in situ hybridisation and/or reverse transcription PCR.Using fusion gene positivity in the current risk stratification would reassign 7% of patients to different European Paediatric Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) risk groups. The next European trial would have 80% power to detect differences in event-free survival of 15% over 10 years and 20% over 5 years in reassigned patients. This would decrease treatment for over a quarter of patients with alveolar histology tumours that lack PAX3/7-FOXO1.Fusion gene status used in stratification may result in significant numbers of patients benefitting from lower treatment-associated toxicity. Prospective testing to show this reassignment maintains current survival rates is now required and is shown to be feasible based on estimated recruitment to a future EpSSG trial. Together with developing novel therapeutic strategies for patients identified as higher risk, this may ultimately improve the outcome and quality of life for patients with RMS.


Schrey D.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | Vaidya S.J.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | Levine D.,Foundation Medicine | Pearson A.D.J.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology | Year: 2015

Children with high-risk neuroblastoma who fail to achieve adequate metastatic response after induction chemotherapy have dismal outcome and new therapeutic strategies are needed. However, timing of introduction of novel agents still remains under discussion. Given an increase in number of phase I-II studies of molecularly targeted drugs in neuroblastoma, it is crucial to determine, as early as possible, which patients may be suitable candidates for new therapeutic strategies. This single-center retrospective analysis of patients with high-risk neuroblastoma showed that the addition of conventional chemotherapy improved the quality of metastatic response only for the group of patients with partial response. It is therefore proposed to develop stratification criteria for those patients very unlikely to benefit from a plethora of additional lines of treatment, but might benefit from introduction of novel agents. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Cancer Research UK Research Institute, Foundation Medicine, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Children and Young Peoples Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatric radiology | Year: 2015

Cancer is the leading cause of death in children older than 1 year of age and new drugs are necessary to improve outcomes. Imaging is crucial to the drug development process and assessment of therapeutic response. In adults, tumours are often assessed with CT using size criteria. Unfortunately, techniques established in adults are not necessarily applicable in children due to differing pathophysiology, ability to cooperate and increased susceptibility to ionising radiation. MRI, in particular quantitative MRI, has to date not been fully utilised in children with extracranial neoplasms. The specific challenges of imaging in children, the potential for functional imaging techniques to inform upon and their inclusion in clinical trials are discussed.


PubMed | Alberta Childrens Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, University of Hamburg, Institute Gustave Roussy and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuro-oncology | Year: 2015

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour (ATRT) is a malignant tumour of the central nervous system with a dismal prognosis. There is no consensus on optimal treatment and different multimodal strategies are currently being used in an attempt to improve outcomes. To evaluate the impact of high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell rescue (HD48 SCR), radiotherapy (RT) at first line, intrathecal chemotherapy (IT) and extent of surgical resection upon recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). An online database search identified prospective and retrospective studies focused on the treatment of children and adolescents with newly diagnosed ATRT. Clinical, therapeutic and outcome data were extracted and an individual pooled data analysis was conducted. Out of 389 publications, 12 manuscripts were included in our review. Data from 332 patients were analysed. Median age at diagnosis was 37 months (range 1-231). HD-SCR, RT and IT had been administered to 28.6% (58/203), 49.6% (118/238) and 21% (65/310) of the patients, respectively. Gross total resection (GTR) had been achieved in 46.5% (152/327) of the cases. In the multivariate analysis, hazard ratios (95% Confidence Interval) for HD-SCR were: RFS-HR = 0.570 (0.357-0.910) p = 0.019, and OS-HR = 0.388 (0.214-0.704) p = 0.002; and for RT: RFS-HR = 0.551 (0.351-0.866) p = 0.01, and OS-HR = 0.393 (0.216-0.712) p = 0.002. IT and GTR were not significantly associated with improved RFS or OS in the multivariate analysis. In our pooled data review, HD-SCR and RT at first line were associated with improved outcomes in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed ATRT.


Moreno L.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | Moreno L.,Clinical Research Programme | Marshall L.V.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | Pearson A.D.J.,Children and Young Peoples Unit
British Medical Bulletin | Year: 2013

IntroductionNeuroblastoma is one of the commonest and deadliest forms of childhood cancer and major initiatives are ongoing to improve the outcome of these patients.Sources of dataData for this review were obtained from PubMed and abstracts from the American Society of Clinical Oncology and Advances in Neuroblastoma Research.Areas of agreementCollaborative clinical trials have led to major improvements in treatment outcomes for low and intermediate risk neuroblastoma, and international initiatives such as the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group have produced a very refined risk stratification incorporating clinical and biological risk factors.Areas of controversyDespite many efforts, the outcome for high-risk neuroblastoma is still poor and the only new strategy incorporated into frontline treatment is anti-GD2 immunotherapy. It is unclear how new drugs targeting specific molecular aberrations will be incorporated.Growing pointsGenomic characterization and drug development have undergone major advances in the last 5 years leading to a much deeper understanding of tumour biology as well as active biomarker-driven preclinical and clinical research on new molecules that will hopefully progress faster and more efficiently into frontline combination treatment strategies.Areas timely for developing researchSignificant effort remains to be done in integrating the different new strategies, combining new molecularly targeted agents to maximize therapeutic benefit and incorporate immunotherapy together with targeted therapies. © The Author 2013.


Raghuram C.P.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | Moreno L.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | Zacharoulis S.,Children and Young Peoples Unit
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2012

Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) are rare childhood brain tumors. There is no standard strategy for treating relapsed sPNETs. The role of high dose chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cell rescue (HDCwith HSCR) in treating relapsed sPNET is controversial. A systematic review of the literature regarding outcome of patients with relapsed sPNET treated with HDC and HSCR was performed to examine the potential predictive factors that would justify its use in this subset of patients. Forty-six patients were identified fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Of those, 15 patients were infants and 15 were pineoblastomas. With a median follow-up of 40 months (range 3-123 months) 15 patients were reported alive. Thirteen patients out of the 15 survivors did not receive craniospinal irradiation (CSRT). The 12month overall survival (OS) of the cohort was 44.2 ±7.5 months. Twelve-month OS for children less than 36 months was 66.7 ± 12.2 months while for older children it was 27.8 ± 10.6 (P = 0.003). Twelve-month OS was 20.0 ± 10.3 for those patients with pineoblastoma versus 54.6 ± 9.0 for those with non-pineal sPNETs (P<0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed pineal location as the only independent adverse prognostic factor. In conclusion high dose chemotherapy with HSCR might lead to survival primarily in younger children with relapsed sPNETeven in the absence of concomitant use of radiotherapy, whereas the outcome in older children and/or in pineal location is extremely poor with this modality. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Moreno L.,Children and Young Peoples Unit | Popov S.,Institute of Cancer Research | Jury A.,Institute of Cancer Research | Al Sarraj S.,King's College | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2013

New molecularly targeted therapies are needed for childhood ependymoma. Angiogenesis and the PDGFR pathway could be potential therapeutic targets. This study aimed to screen ependymomas for the expression and clinicopathological correlates of angiogenic factors and potential therapeutic targets including VEGFR, endoglin (CD105), CD34, CD31, c-Kit, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β. Immunohistochemistry for angiogenesis factors and PDGFR-α and β was performed in 24 archival tumor samples from children and adults treated for ependymoma at our institution. CD31 density, CD105 density and pericyte coverage index (PCI) were calculated. These findings were correlated with clinical outcome. VEGFR2 was overexpressed in tumor cells in only one out of 24 cases, but was found overexpressed in the vessels in 6 cases. PDGFR-α and β were found to be over-expressed in the ependymoma tumor cells in seven out of 24 cases (29.2 %). CD31 density, CD105 density and PCI did not correlate with expression of PDGFRs. Overexpression of PDGFR-α and β in tumor cells and overexpression of PDGFR-α in tumor endothelium had prognostic significance and this was maintained in multivariate analysis for overexpression of PDGFR-α in tumor cells (2 year progression free survival was 16.7 ± 15.2 for cases with overexpression of PDGFR-α in the tumor vs. 74.5 ± 15.2 for those with low/no expression, hazard ratio = 5.78, p = 0.04). A number of angiogenic factors are expressed in ependymoma tumor cells and tumor endothelium. Preliminary evidence suggests that the expression of PDGFRs could have a prognostic significance in ependymoma. This data suggests that PDGFRs should be further evaluated as targets using novel PDGFR inhibitors. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Children and Young Peoples Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neuro-oncology | Year: 2013

New molecularly targeted therapies are needed for childhood ependymoma. Angiogenesis and the PDGFR pathway could be potential therapeutic targets. This study aimed to screen ependymomas for the expression and clinicopathological correlates of angiogenic factors and potential therapeutic targets including VEGFR, endoglin (CD105), CD34, CD31, c-Kit, PDGFR- and PDGFR-. Immunohistochemistry for angiogenesis factors and PDGFR- and was performed in 24 archival tumor samples from children and adults treated for ependymoma at our institution. CD31 density, CD105 density and pericyte coverage index (PCI) were calculated. These findings were correlated with clinical outcome. VEGFR2 was overexpressed in tumor cells in only one out of 24 cases, but was found overexpressed in the vessels in 6 cases. PDGFR- and were found to be over-expressed in the ependymoma tumor cells in seven out of 24 cases (29.2 %). CD31 density, CD105 density and PCI did not correlate with expression of PDGFRs. Overexpression of PDGFR- and in tumor cells and overexpression of PDGFR- in tumor endothelium had prognostic significance and this was maintained in multivariate analysis for overexpression of PDGFR- in tumor cells (2 year progression free survival was 16.7 15.2 for cases with overexpression of PDGFR- in the tumor vs. 74.5 15.2 for those with low/no expression, hazard ratio = 5.78, p = 0.04). A number of angiogenic factors are expressed in ependymoma tumor cells and tumor endothelium. Preliminary evidence suggests that the expression of PDGFRs could have a prognostic significance in ependymoma. This data suggests that PDGFRs should be further evaluated as targets using novel PDGFR inhibitors.

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