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Rocca M.A.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Valsasina P.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Absinta M.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | Moiola L.,Vita-Salute San Raffaele University | And 7 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2014

Active motor functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have a strictly lateralized pattern of activations and a preserved functional connectivity (FC) within the motor system when compared to age-matched healthy controls. However, it is still not clear whether a preserved FC in pediatric MS is present only in the motor system, or involves other relevant functional system. Resting-state (RS) fMRI is a valuable tool for an unbiased investigation of FC abnormalities of multiple networks. This study explored abnormalities of RS FC within and between large-scale neuronal networks from 44 pediatric MS patients and 27 controls and their correlation with clinical, neuropsychological, and conventional MRI measures. Compared to controls, pediatric MS patients had a decreased FC of several regions of the sensorimotor, secondary visual, default-mode (DMN), executive control, and bilateral working memory (WMN) networks. They also experienced an increased FC in the right medial frontal gyrus of the attention network, which was correlated with T2 lesion volume. Cognitively impaired patients had decreased RS FC of the right precuneus of the left WMN. An increased FC between the sensorimotor network and the DMN, and between the L WMN and the attention network as well as a decreased FC between L WMN and the DMN were also found. A distributed pattern of FC abnormalities within large-scale neuronal networks occurs in pediatric MS patients, contributes to their cognitive status, and is partially driven by focal white matter lesions. Internetwork connectivity is relatively preserved in these patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Banaschewski T.,University of Heidelberg | Soutullo C.,University of Navarra | Lecendreux M.,Robert Debre University Hospital | Johnson M.,Child Neuropsychiatry Unit | And 5 more authors.
CNS Drugs | Year: 2013

Background: Optimal management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) aims not only to ameliorate patients' symptoms, but also to improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) and functioning. A pivotal, 7-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study in children and adolescents in ten European countries demonstrated that the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment for symptoms of ADHD. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess HRQL and functional impairment outcomes in this clinical trial, using the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition: Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE:PRF) and the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report (WFIRS-P), respectively. Methods: Patients (aged 6-17 years) with diagnosed ADHD and a baseline ADHD Rating Scale IV total score ≥28 were randomized (1:1:1) to 7 weeks of double-blind treatment with once-daily LDX, placebo or the reference treatment, osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH). Participants' parents (or legally authorized representatives) completed the CHIP-CE:PRF and WFIRS-P questionnaires at baseline, at weeks 4 and 7, and/or at early termination. Endpoint was defined as the last on-treatment visit with valid data (≤30 % missing items). The CHIP-CE:PRF Achievement domain was pre-specified as the primary HRQL outcome. Results: The full analysis set comprised 317 patients (LDX, n = 104; placebo, n = 106; OROS-MPH, n = 107), the majority of whom completed the study (LDX, n = 77; placebo, n = 42; OROS-MPH, n = 72). Baseline CHIP-CE:PRF T-scores in four of the five domains were ≥1 standard deviation below norms (US community samples). Compared with placebo, LDX was associated with statistically significantly improved T-scores from baseline to endpoint in these four domains, with effect sizes of 1.280 (p < 0.001) in Achievement, 1.079 (p < 0.001) in Risk Avoidance, 0.421 (p < 0.01) in Resilience and 0.365 (p < 0.05) in Satisfaction. In LDX-treated patients, placebo-adjusted improvements from baseline to endpoint in WFIRS-P scores were statistically significant (p < 0.001) for total score and four of the six domains, with effect sizes of 0.924 (total score), 1.249 (Learning and School), 0.730 (Family), 0.643 (Social Activities) and 0.640 (Risky Activities). OROS-MPH treatment showed similar patterns of improvement from baseline to endpoint in both CHIP-CE:PRF and WFIRS-P scores. Conclusions: Baseline HRQL and functional impairment scores reflect the burden of untreated ADHD. The benefits of short-term stimulant treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD extend beyond symptomatic relief and impact positively on HRQL and daily functioning. © 2013 The Author(s).

Coghill D.,University of Dundee | Banaschewski T.,University of Heidelberg | Lecendreux M.,Pediatric Sleep Center | Soutullo C.,University of Navarra | And 7 more authors.
European Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2013

This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) compared with placebo in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Europe. Osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) was included as a reference arm. Patients (6-17 years old) with a baseline ADHD Rating Scale version IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score ≥28 were randomized (1:1:1) to dose-optimized LDX (30, 50, or 70. mg/day), OROS-MPH (18, 36, or 54. mg/day) or placebo for 7 weeks. Primary and key secondary efficacy measures were the investigator-rated ADHD-RS-IV and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) rating, respectively. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), electrocardiograms, and vital signs. Of 336 patients randomized, 196 completed the study. The difference between LDX and placebo in least squares mean change in ADHD-RS-IV total score from baseline to endpoint was -18.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.5 to -15.7) (p<0.001; effect size, 1.80). The difference between OROS-MPH and placebo in least squares mean change in ADHD-RS-IV total score from baseline to endpoint was -13.0 (95% CI: -15.9 to -10.2) (p<0.001; effect size, 1.26). The proportions (95% CI) of patients showing improvement (CGI-I of 1 or 2) at endpoint were 78% (70-86), 14% (8-21), and 61% (51-70) for LDX, placebo, and OROS-MPH. The most common TEAEs for LDX were decreased appetite, headache, and insomnia. Mean changes in vital signs were modest and consistent with the known profile of LDX. LDX was effective and generally well tolerated in children and adolescents with ADHD. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

Anchisi L.,Child Neuropsychiatry Unit | Anchisi L.,Messina University | Dessi S.,University of Cagliari | Pani A.,University of Cagliari | Mandas A.,University of Cagliari
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2013

Neurodegeneration, a common feature for many brain disorders, has severe consequences on the mental and physical health of an individual. Typically human neurodegenerative diseases are devastating illnesses that predominantly affect elderly people, progress slowly, and lead to disability and premature death; however they may occur at all ages. Despite extensive research and investments, current therapeutic interventions against these disorders treat solely the symptoms. Therefore, since the underlying mechanisms of damage to neurons are similar, in spite of etiology and background heterogeneous, it will be of interest to identify possible trigger point of neurodegeneration enabling development of drugs and/or prevention strategies that target many disorders simultaneously. Among the factors that have been identified so far to cause neurodegeneration, failures in cholesterol homeostasis are indubitably the best investigated. The aim of this review is to critically discuss some of the main results reported in the recent years in this field mainly focusing on the mechanisms that, by recovering perturbations of cholesterol homeostasis in neuronal cells, may correct clinically relevant features occurring in different neurodegenerative disorders and, in this regard, also debate the current potential therapeutic interventions. © 2013 Anchisi, Dessì, Pani and Mandas.

Menghini D.,Childrens Hospital Bambino Gesu | Costanzo F.,Childrens Hospital Bambino Gesu | Vicari S.,Childrens Hospital Bambino Gesu | Vicari S.,Child Neuropsychiatry Unit
Behavior Genetics | Year: 2011

We investigated regional grey matter (GM) density in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) compared to age-matched controls and correlated MRI data with neuropsychological measures in the DS group. Inter-group comparisons documented several GM concentration abnormalities in the participants with DS compared to controls. In the adolescents with DS, intra-group results also showed associations between regional GM density and the neuropsychological measures considered. In particular, GM density of the cerebellum and middle and inferior temporal gyrus was associated with linguistic measures. Short-term memory performances were correlated with the inferior parietal lobule, insula, superior temporal gyrus, medial occipital lobe, and cerebellum. Long-term memory abilities were correlated with GM density in the orbitofrontal cortex, lateral and medial temporal lobe regions, and anterior cingulum and visuo-perceptual abilities with GM density the left middle frontal gyrus. Results of this preliminary study are consistent with a not always efficient brain organization in DS. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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