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Sharma A.K.,University of Manitoba | Sharma A.K.,Child Health Research Institute of Manitoba | Metzger D.L.,University of British Columbia | Daymont C.,University of Manitoba | And 4 more authors.
Pediatric Research | Year: 2015

In adults, anthropometric measures of central adiposity, such as waist-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC), are more strongly associated with cardio-metabolic risks than BMI.Methods:To provide similar quantitative tools for North American children, we created smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for WHtR and WC based on data from the US National Health and Nutrition Survey, cycle III (NHANES III, N = 11,930 aged 2-24 y 1988-1994).Results:Applying these reference charts to subsequent NHANES survey cycles, 1999-2012) demonstrated a significant mean increase in both Z-scores of approximately 0.30 SD. In measuring the strength of the association between anthropometric measures and cardio-metabolic risk factors, a unit change in Z-scores for WHtR, WC, and BMI significantly increased the odds of an adverse outcome in all cases (1.18-2.03, P < 0.0001). Z-scores for both measures of central adiposity were significantly more strongly associated with cardio-metabolic comorbidities than BMI-Z.Conclusion:Since Z-scores permit standardized comparisons across ages and genders, they are useful measures of central adiposity in both clinical or research settings. By providing LMS tables for children and adolescents based on North American reference data, we hope to provide quantitative tools for the study of obesity and its complications. © 2015 International Pediatric Research Foundation, Inc. Source

Anaparti V.,University of Manitoba | Anaparti V.,Child Health Research Institute of Manitoba | Ilarraza R.,University of Manitoba | Orihara K.,University of Manitoba | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology | Year: 2015

Human airway smooth muscle (HASM) exhibits enhanced contractility in asthma. Inflammation is associated with airway hypercontractility, but factors that underpin these features are not fully elucidated. Glutamate toxicity associated with increased plasma glutamate concentrations was observed in airway inflammation, suggesting that multisubunit glutamate receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-R) contribute to airway hyperreactivity. We tested the hypothesis that HASM expresses NMDA-R subunits that can form functional receptors to mediate contractile responses to specific extracellular ligands. In cultured HASM cells, we measured NMDA-R subunit mRNA and protein abundance by quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and epifluorescence immunocytochemistry. We measured mRNA for a number of NMDA-R subunits, including the obligatory NR1 subunit, which we confirmed to be present as a protein. In vitro and ex vivo functional NMDA-R activation in HASM cells was measured using intracellular calcium flux (fura-2 AM), collagen gel contraction assays, and murine thin-cut lung slices (TCLS). NMDA, a pharmacological glutamate analog, induced cytosolic calcium mobilization in cultured HASM cells. We detected three different temporal patterns of calcium response, suggesting the presence of heterogeneous myocyte subpopulations. NMDA-R activation also induced airway contraction in murine TCLS and soft collagen gels seeded with HASM cells. Responses in cells, lung slices, and collagen gels were mediated by NMDA-R, as they could be blocked by (2R)-amino-5- phosphonopentanoate, a specific NMDA-R inhibitor. In summary, we reveal the presence of NMDA-R in HASM that mediate contractile responses via glutamatergic mechanisms. These findings suggest that accumulation of glutamate-like ligands for NMDA-R associated with airway inflammation contributes directly to airway hyperreactivity. © 2015 the American Physiological Society. Source

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