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Halland, Sweden

Roswall J.,County Hospital Halmstad | Roswall J.,Gothenburg University | Karlsson A.-K.,Gothenburg University | Allvin K.,Gothenburg University | And 6 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2012

Aim: To investigate the development of waist circumference (WC) in preschool children born preterm compared with a population-based reference. Background: Children born preterm are reported to be insulin resistant, despite being lean during early childhood. We hypothesize that the mechanism is through increased visceral adiposity. Methods: Data from 4446 preschool children (2169 girls/2277 boys) born in 2001-2006 from a population-based study were compared with longitudinal measurements of body mass index (BMI) and WC from a cohort of 152 children (64 girls/88 boys) born moderately preterm in 2002-2004 (gestational age, 32-37 weeks). Results: In the preterm children, the mean WC was 2.8 cm larger compared with the reference group (p < 0.001) at 2 years of age but not at 5 years of age. There was no significant difference in the mean BMI at 2 years of age. The preterm group was significantly leaner at 5 years of age, with a mean BMI of 15.13 compared with 15.98 in the reference group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Children born moderately preterm present as lean during early childhood but have an increased waist circumference in infancy, pointing towards a change in fat distribution with more abdominal fat. This may have implications for their metabolic status. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Pædiatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Source


Roswall J.,Halland Hospital | Roswall J.,Gothenburg University | Almqvist-Tangen G.,Gothenburg University | Almqvist-Tangen G.,Child Health Care Unit | And 8 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2016

Background: A number of child/parental factors have been shown to be significant predictors of childhood overweight, although a better understanding of possible contextual influences of neighbourhood-level characteristics might provide new insights leading to tailored, targeted interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of neighbourhood purchasing power and its relationship with other known risk factors related to childhood overweight in a prospective birth cohort. Methods: A prospective, population-based, birth-cohort study was conducted in south-western Sweden, comprising 2,666 infants born in 2007-2008. Childhood overweight was assessed by body mass index (BMI) data from follow-up examinations at four years of age (n = 2,026) and overweight defined according to the International Obesity Task Force. Using logistic regression analysis, the influential child/parental predictors were identified from the candidate predictors, viz. child's gender, as well as birth weight adjusted for gestational age and parental factors at recruitment, including maternal smoking status, maternal BMI (before pregnancy), paternal BMI and parental educational level. The children's residential parishes at follow-up were stratified by parish-level household purchasing power (<10 %, 10-19.9 %, 20-29.9 % and ≥30 % of all resident families with low purchasing power) and the "contextual" influence was analysed. In each such neighbourhood stratum, the adjusted overweight ratio (AOR), i.e. the ratio between the observed number of overweight children and the expected number, taking account of the influential child/parental predictors, was estimated. Results: The prevalence of overweight at four years of age was 11.9 %. In the economically strongest neighbourhoods (i.e. <10 % of resident families with low purchasing power), the AOR was 0.60 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.34-0.98). The corresponding empirically Bayes-adjusted AOR was 0.73 (95 % CI: 0.46-1.02; 97 % posterior probability of AOR <1). In the other neighbourhood strata, the statistical evidence of a deviant AOR was weaker. Conclusion: The economically strongest neighbourhoods had a lower prevalence than expected of overweight at four years of age. This finding should prompt studies to acquire more knowledge of potentially modifiable factors that differ between neighbourhoods and are related to childhood overweight, providing a basis for tailored, targeted interventions. © 2016 The Author(s). Source


Almquist-Tangen G.,Child Health Care Unit | Almquist-Tangen G.,Gothenburg University | Alm B.,Child Health Care Unit | Alm B.,Gothenburg University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2013

Background: Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. Methods. A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n = 2 407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. <10%, 10-19%, 20-29% and ≥ 30% of the resident families with low purchasing power. Results: The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p = 0.00004): from 16.3% (< 10% with low purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR = 1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p = 0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio). Conclusion: The neighbourhood purchasing power provided a spatial determinant of low numbers of mothers breastfeeding at four months of age, which could be relevant to consider for targeted actions. The elevated observed-to-expected ratio in the neighbourhoods with the lowest purchasing power points toward a possible contextual influence. © 2013 Almquist-Tangen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Almquist-Tangen G.,Child Health Care Unit | Almquist-Tangen G.,Gothenburg University | Dahlgren J.,Gothenburg University | Roswall J.,Gothenburg University | And 3 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2013

Aim Infant feeding affects growth, obesity and life-long health. This study examined the impact of dietary patterns on body mass index (BMI) at 12 and 18 months. Methods We followed a cohort of 2666 children recruited in 2007-2008. Feeding practices were obtained from parental questionnaires and anthropometric data collected by child health nurses. Results At 6 months, 58.3% of the infant were breastfed, but only 1.6% exclusively. Many had begun eating solids (91.8%), porridge (87.7%) or milk cereal drink (46.6%). Bottle-feeding at 4 months was not a risk factor for a high BMI (>1 SD) at 12 or 18 months. Milk cereal drink at six months increased the risk of a high BMI at 12 and 18 months, respectively (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.12-2.22, and 1.52, 1.07-2.17). Milk cereal drink use was increased by low parental education and maternal obesity and reduced by troubled sleep and parental group participation. Conclusion Formula at 4 months did not predict a high BMI at 12 or 18 months. Milk cereal drink use at 6 months was a risk factor for a high BMI at 12 and 18 months. The choice of milk cereal drink was influenced by parental factors, especially educational levels. ©2013 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source


Thoren A.,Umea University | Thoren A.,Child Health Care Unit | Werner B.,Karolinska Institutet | Lundholm C.,Karolinska Institutet | And 2 more authors.
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics | Year: 2015

Aim We evaluated whether body mass index (BMI) and rapid growth in early life were associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight at 16 and 18 years of age. Methods The study population comprised all children born in Sweden on the 15th of each month in 1981. Individuals born on the 5th, 10th and 20th of every month were added for counties with low population densities. Information on weight and height was collected from birth up to 18 years of age for 98.6% of the 3537 children identified. Results Weight at 12 months of age was associated with being overweight at both 16 and 18 years of age. Rapid weight gain from birth to 12 months was associated with higher odds for being overweight later in life, and the weight gain between 18 months and four years of age was the strongest risk factor for being overweight in late adolescence in both sexes. There was no association between a birthweight of <2500 g or >4500 g and being overweight at 16 or 18 years of age. Conclusion Fast growth during early childhood was associated with an increased risk of being overweight later in life, emphasising the importance of early prevention. ©2015 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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