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Maatta M.,University of British Columbia | Maatta M.,Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute | Macdonald H.M.,University of British Columbia | Macdonald H.M.,Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Osteoporosis International | Year: 2015

Summary: Forearm fractures are common during growth. We studied bone strength in youth with a recent forearm fracture. In girls, suboptimal bone strength was associated with fractures. In boys, poor balance and physical inactivity may lead to fractures. Prospective studies will confirm these relationships and identify targets for prevention strategies.Introduction: The etiology of pediatric forearm fractures is unclear. Thus, we examined distal radius bone strength, microstructure, and density in children and adolescents with a recent low- or moderate-energy forearm fracture and those without forearm fractures.Methods: We assessed the non-dominant (controls) and non-fractured (cases) distal radius (7 % site) using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) (Scanco Medical AG) in 270 participants (girls: cases n = 47, controls n = 61 and boys: cases n = 88, controls n = 74) aged 8–16 years. We assessed standard anthropometry, maturity, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), Hologic QDR 4500 W) physical activity, and balance. We fit sex-specific logistic regression models for each bone outcome adjusting for maturity, ethnicity, height, and percent body fat.Results: In girls, impaired bone strength (failure load, ultimate stress) and a high load-to-strength ratio were associated with low-energy fractures (odds ratios (OR) 2.8–4.3). Low total bone mineral density (Tt.BMD), bone volume ratio, trabecular thickness, and cortical BMD and thickness were also associated with low-energy fractures (ORs 2.0–7.0). In boys, low Tt.BMD, but not bone strength, was associated with low-energy fractures (OR = 1.8). Boys with low-energy fractures had poor balance and higher percent body fat compared with controls (p < 0.05). Boys with fractures (both types) were less active than controls (p < 0.05).Conclusions: Forearm fracture etiology appears to be sex-specific. In girls, deficits in bone strength are associated with fractures. In boys, a combination of poor balance, excess body fat, and low physical activity may lead to fractures. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these relationships and clarify targets for prevention strategies. © 2014, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

MacLeod S.M.,Child & Family Research Institute
Pediatric Drugs | Year: 2015

A point has been reached in the pursuit of optimal prescribing for infants, children and youth where global deficiencies in inter-professional communication are presenting a substantial barrier to progress. In an effort to remedy this situation, the International Alliance for Better Medicines for Children (IABMC) is seeking to create an international registry of engaged essential personnel. An open invitation is extended to all those who wish to partner with others in actively addressing the pressing global health challenge represented by gaps in the evidence base supporting safe and effective drug therapy for children of all ages. Respondents are invited to complete a brief survey at: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/H3GKSHP. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Fleming A.P.,University of Washington | McMahon R.J.,Simon Fraser University | McMahon R.J.,Child & Family Research Institute | Moran L.R.,University of Washington | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Attention Disorders | Year: 2015

Objective: ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Method: Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results: Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. Conclusion: DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications

Pakpour S.,University of British Columbia | Pakpour S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Scott J.A.,University of Toronto | Turvey S.E.,University of British Columbia | And 5 more authors.
Microbial Ecology | Year: 2016

Archaea are widespread and abundant in soils, oceans, or human and animal gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. However, very little is known about the presence of Archaea in indoor environments and factors that can regulate their abundances. Using a quantitative PCR approach, and targeting the archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes in floor dust samples, we found that Archaea are a common part of the indoor microbiota, 5.01 ± 0.14 (log 16S rRNA gene copies/g dust, mean ± SE) in bedrooms and 5.58 ± 0.13 in common rooms, such as living rooms. Their abundance, however, was lower than bacteria: 9.20 ± 0.32 and 9.17 ± 0.32 in bedrooms and common rooms, respectively. In addition, by measuring a broad array of environmental factors, we obtained preliminary insights into how the abundance of total archaeal 16S rRNA gene copies in indoor environment would be associated with building characteristics and occupants’ activities. Based on the results, Archaea are not equally distributed within houses, and the areas with greater input of outdoor microbiome and higher traffic and material heterogeneity tend to have a higher abundance of Archaea. Nevertheless, more research is needed to better understand causes and consequences of this microbial group in indoor environments. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Fleming A.P.,University of Washington | McMahon R.J.,Simon Fraser University | McMahon R.J.,Child & Family Research Institute | King K.M.,University of Washington
Prevention Science | Year: 2016

Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child’s first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study. © 2016 Society for Prevention Research

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