Child and Reproductive Health

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Child and Reproductive Health

Merseyside, United Kingdom
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Terlouw D.J.,Child and Reproductive Health | Morgah K.,Togo Ministry of Health | Wolkon A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Dare A.,Togo Ministry of Health | And 7 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2010

Background: An evaluation of the short-term impact on childhood malaria morbidity of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to households with children aged 9-59 months as part of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign. Methods: The prevalence of anaemia and malaria in children aged zero to 59 months was measured during two cross-sectional household cluster-sample surveys conducted during the peak malaria transmission, three months before (Sept 2004, n = 2521) and nine months after the campaign (Sept 2005, n = 2813) in three districts representative of Togo's three epidemiological malaria transmission regions: southern tropical coastal plains (Yoto), central fertile highlands (Ogou) and northern semi-arid savannah (Tone). Results: In households with children <5 years of age, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership increased from <1% to >65% in all 3 districts. Reported ITN use by children during the previous night was 35.9%, 43.8% and 80.6% in Yoto, Ogou and Tone, respectively. Rainfall patterns were comparable in both years. The overall prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia (Hb < 8.0 g/dL) was reduced by 28% (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.72, 95% CI 0.62-0.84) and mean haemoglobin was increased by 0.35 g/dL (95% CI 0.25-0.45). The effect was predominantly seen in children aged 18-59 months and in the two southern districts: PR (95% CI) for moderate to severe anaemia and clinical malaria: Yoto 0.62 (0.44-0.88) and 0.49 (0.35-0.75); Ogou 0.54 (0.37-0.79) and 0.85 (0.57-1.27), respectively. Similar reductions occurred in children <18 months in Ogou, but not in Yoto. No effect was seen in the semi-arid northern district despite a high malaria burden and ITN coverage. Conclusions: A marked reduction in childhood malaria associated morbidity was observed in the year following mass distribution of free LLINs in two of the three districts in Togo. Sub-national level impact evaluations will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of expanding national malaria control efforts. © 2010 Terlouw et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Mason L.,Child and Reproductive Health | Dellicour S.,Child and Reproductive Health | Dellicour S.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Dellicour S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2015

Background: In western Kenya, maternal mortality is a major public health problem estimated at 730/100,000 live births, higher than the Kenyan national average of 488/100,000 women. Many women do not attend antenatal care (ANC) in the first trimester, half do not receive 4 ANC visits. A high proportion use traditional birth attendants (TBA) for delivery and 1 in five deliver unassisted. The present study was carried out to ascertain why women do not fully utilise health facility ANC and delivery services. Methods: A qualitative study using 8 focus group discussions each consisting of 8-10 women, aged 15-49 years. Thematic analysis identified the main barriers and facilitators to health facility based ANC and delivery. Results: Attending health facility for ANC was viewed positively. Three elements of care were important; testing for disease including HIV, checking the position of the foetus, and receiving injections and / or medications. Receiving a bed net and obtaining a registration card were also valuable. Four barriers to attending a health facility for ANC were evident; attitudes of clinic staff, long clinic waiting times, HIV testing and cost, although not all women felt the cost was prohibitive being worth it for the health of the child. Most women preferred to deliver in a health facility due to better management of complications. However cost was a barrier, and a reason to visit a TBA because of flexible payment. Other barriers were unpredictable labour and transport, staff attitudes and husbands' preference. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that women in western Kenya are amenable to ANC and would be willing and even prefer to deliver in a healthcare facility, if it were affordable and accessible to them. However for this to happen there needs to be investment in health promotion, and transport, as well as reducing or removing all fees associated with antenatal and delivery care. Yet creating demand for service will need to go alongside investment in antenatal services at organisational, staffing and facility level in order to meet both current and future increase in demand. © 2015 Mason et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Alexander K.T.,Child and Reproductive Health | Oduor C.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Nyothach E.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Laserson K.F.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 12 more authors.
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2014

Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM) on equity for girls' education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the resources available for menstruating schoolgirls. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 62 primary schools during unannounced visits. Of these, 60% had handwashing water, 13% had washing water in latrines for menstruating girls, and 2% had soap. Latrines were structurally sound and 16% were clean. Most schools (84%) had separate latrines for girls, but the majority (77%) had no lock. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) supported WASH in 76% of schools. Schools receiving WASH interventions were more likely to have: cleaner latrines (Risk Ratio (RR) 1.5; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.0, 2.1), handwashing facilities (RR 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.5), handwashing water (RR 2.7; CI 1.4, 5.2), and water in girls' latrines (RR 4.0; CI 1.4, 11.6). Schools continue to lack essential WASH facilities for menstruating girls. While external support for school WASH interventions improved MHM quality, the impact of these contributions remains insufficient. Further support is required to meet international recommendations for healthy, gender-equitable schools. © 2014 by the authors.


Webster J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Kayentao K.,University of Bamako | Kayentao K.,Child and Reproductive Health | Bruce J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction:The objectives of the study were to evaluate the health system effectiveness of ANC for the delivery of a dose of IPTp and an ITN to women attending ANC during eligible gestation, and to identify the predictors of systems effectiveness.Methods:A cross sectional study was undertaken in 10 health facilities including structured non-participant observations of the ANC process for 780 pregnant women followed by exit interviews. The proportion of pregnant women receiving a dose of IPTp-SP and an ITN was assessed. Predictors of each ineffective intermediate process were identified using multivariable logistic regression.Results:Overall, 0% and 24.5% of pregnant women of eligible gestation on the first visit to ANC received a dose of IPTp-SP by DOT at the district and community levels respectively. Ineffective intermediate processes were 'given IPTp-SP at the ANC' 63.9% and 74.0% (95% CI 62.0, 83.3), and 'given IPTp-SP by DOT' 0% and 34.3% (95% CI 10.5, 69.8), at district and community levels, respectively. Delivery of ITNs was effective where they were in stock; however stock-outs were a problem. Predictors of receiving IPTp-SP at the district level were 4 to 6 months gestation, not reporting symptoms of malaria at ANC visit and the amount of money spent during the visit. At the community level, the predictors were 4 to 6 months gestation, maternal education below primary level, routine ANC visit (not for an illness), palpation of the abdomen, and expenditure of money in ANC.Conclusion:In Segou District, the delivery of IPTp-SP was ineffective; whilst ITN delivery was effective if ITNs were in stock. Predictors of receiving IPTp-SP at the district and community levels included gestational age, the amount of expenditure during the ANC visit and no illness. © 2013 Webster et al.


Webster J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Kayentao K.,University of Bamako | Diarra S.,University of Bamako | Diawara S.I.,University of Bamako | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Introduction:Delivery of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women (IPTp-SP) through antenatal clinic (ANC) in Mali is low, and whilst ANC delivery of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) is higher, coverage is still below national and international targets. The aim of this study was to explain quantitative data from a related study which identified ineffective processes in the delivery of these interventions in one district in Mali.Methods:In-depth interviews were conducted with health workers at the national, regional, district and health facility levels on their perceptions of reasons for the ineffective processes identified in the quantitative study, and their reported practices. Themes were coded for each ineffective process, and within these a health systems lens was used. Content analysis was used for emergent themes within this framework. MindMaps were used to display the findings.Results:Intervention specific factors for the ineffective delivery of IPTp-SP included misunderstanding of the upper limit of the gestational age at which SP could be given and side effects of SP. Incorrect practices had been recommended in training and supervision of health workers. Pregnant women who were ill on attendance at ANC were not consistently managed across health facilities. The most common reason for not offering women an ITN on their first ANC visit was if they were from outside the health facility catchment area. Broader health systems issues influencing the effectiveness of delivery of each of these interventions were also identified.Conclusion:In this setting, intervention-specific factors resulted in the ineffective delivery of IPTp-SP. These relate to complex policy guidelines, lack of guidance on how to implement the guidelines, and the institutionalising of practices that undermine the national guidelines. Interventions may be implemented and show real gains in the shorter-term whilst waiting for broader health systems issues to be addressed. © 2013 Webster et al.


An evaluation of the short-term impact on childhood malaria morbidity of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to households with children aged 9-59 months as part of the Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign.The prevalence of anaemia and malaria in children aged zero to 59 months was measured during two cross-sectional household cluster-sample surveys conducted during the peak malaria transmission, three months before (Sept 2004, n=2521) and nine months after the campaign (Sept 2005, n=2813) in three districts representative of Togos three epidemiological malaria transmission regions: southern tropical coastal plains (Yoto), central fertile highlands (Ogou) and northern semi-arid savannah (Tone).In households with children<5 years of age, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership increased from <1% to >65% in all 3 districts. Reported ITN use by children during the previous night was 35.9%, 43.8% and 80.6% in Yoto, Ogou and Tone, respectively. Rainfall patterns were comparable in both years. The overall prevalence of moderate to severe anaemia (Hb<8.0 g/dL) was reduced by 28% (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.72, 95% CI 0.62-0.84) and mean haemoglobin was increased by 0.35 g/dL (95% CI 0.25-0.45).The effect was predominantly seen in children aged 18-59 months and in the two southern districts: PR (95% CI) for moderate to severe anaemia and clinical malaria: Yoto 0.62 (0.44-0.88) and 0.49 (0.35-0.75); Ogou 0.54 (0.37-0.79) and 0.85 (0.57-1.27), respectively. Similar reductions occurred in children<18 months in Ogou, but not in Yoto. No effect was seen in the semi-arid northern district despite a high malaria burden and ITN coverage.A marked reduction in childhood malaria associated morbidity was observed in the year following mass distribution of free LLINs in two of the three districts in Togo. Sub-national level impact evaluations will contribute to a better understanding of the impact of expanding national malaria control efforts.


PubMed | Child and Reproductive Health and Kenya Medical Research Institute
Type: | Journal: BMC pregnancy and childbirth | Year: 2015

In western Kenya, maternal mortality is a major public health problem estimated at 730/100,000 live births, higher than the Kenyan national average of 488/100,000 women. Many women do not attend antenatal care (ANC) in the first trimester, half do not receive 4 ANC visits. A high proportion use traditional birth attendants (TBA) for delivery and 1 in five deliver unassisted. The present study was carried out to ascertain why women do not fully utilise health facility ANC and delivery services.A qualitative study using 8 focus group discussions each consisting of 8-10 women, aged 15-49 years. Thematic analysis identified the main barriers and facilitators to health facility based ANC and delivery.Attending health facility for ANC was viewed positively. Three elements of care were important; testing for disease including HIV, checking the position of the foetus, and receiving injections and / or medications. Receiving a bed net and obtaining a registration card were also valuable. Four barriers to attending a health facility for ANC were evident; attitudes of clinic staff, long clinic waiting times, HIV testing and cost, although not all women felt the cost was prohibitive being worth it for the health of the child. Most women preferred to deliver in a health facility due to better management of complications. However cost was a barrier, and a reason to visit a TBA because of flexible payment. Other barriers were unpredictable labour and transport, staff attitudes and husbands preference.Our findings suggest that women in western Kenya are amenable to ANC and would be willing and even prefer to deliver in a healthcare facility, if it were affordable and accessible to them. However for this to happen there needs to be investment in health promotion, and transport, as well as reducing or removing all fees associated with antenatal and delivery care. Yet creating demand for service will need to go alongside investment in antenatal services at organisational, staffing and facility level in order to meet both current and future increase in demand.

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