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Racz S.J.,University of Washington | McMahon R.J.,Simon Fraser University | McMahon R.J.,Child and Family Research Institute
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review | Year: 2011

Inadequate parental monitoring is widely recognized as a risk factor for the development of child and adolescent conduct problems. However, previous studies examining parental monitoring have largely measured parental knowledge and not the active methods used by parents to track the activities and behavior of their children. The seminal work of Stattin and Kerr (Child Dev 71:1072-1085, 2000; Kerr and Stattin in Dev Psychol 36:366-380, 2000) has challenged the field to reinterpret the construct of parental monitoring, focusing on the active components of this parenting behavior. As a result, this area of research has witnessed a resurgence of activity. The goal of the current paper is to review the evidence regarding the relationship between parental knowledge and monitoring and child and adolescent conduct problems that has accumulated during the past decade. Forty-seven studies published between 2000 and 2010 were identified by searching major databases and bibliographies and were included in this review. This paper will examine the following areas: (a) "parental monitoring" as "parental knowledge"; (b) parental knowledge as driven by child disclosure; (c) the relationship between parental knowledge and monitoring and child and adolescent conduct problems; (d) bidirectional associations between parental knowledge and monitoring and child and adolescent conduct problems; (e) contextual influences on parental knowledge and monitoring; (f) antecedents of parental knowledge and monitoring; (g) clinical implications of research on parental knowledge and monitoring; and (h) limitations of existing research and future directions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Oberlander T.F.,Child and Family Research Institute | Oberlander T.F.,University of British Columbia
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2012

Finely tuning levels of the key neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) during early life is essential for brain development and setting pathways for health and disorder across the early life span. Given the central role of 5-HT in brain development, regulation of mood, stress reactivity, and risk for psychiatric disorders, alterations in 5-HT signaling early in life have critical implications for behavior and mental health in childhood and adolescence. This article reviews the developmental consequences of two key influences that alter fetal 5-HT signaling: (1) in utero exposure to 5-HT reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, and (2) genetic variations in the 5-HT transporter gene (SLC6A4). The consequences of altered prenatal 5-HT signaling vary greatly, and developmental outcomes depend on an ongoing interplay between biological (genetic/epigenetic variations), experiential (prenatal drug or maternal mood exposure), and contextual (postnatal social environment) variables. Emerging evidence suggests both exposure to 5-HT reuptake inhibitors and genetic variations that affect 5-HT signaling may increase sensitivity to negative social contexts for some individuals, whereas for others, they may confer sensitivity to positive life circumstances. In this sense, factors that change central 5-HT levels may function less like influences that predict "vulnerability," but rather act like "plasticity factors." Understanding the impact of early changes in serotonergic programming offers critical insights that might explain patterns of individual differences in developmental risk and resilience. © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Source

Fleming A.P.,University of Washington | McMahon R.J.,Simon Fraser University | McMahon R.J.,Child and Family Research Institute
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review | Year: 2012

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects between 2 and 8 % of college students. ADHD is associated with impaired academic, psychological, and social functioning, and with a wide array of negative outcomes including lower GPAs, graduation rates, and self-reported quality of life. The college environment often brings decreased external structure and increased availability of immediate rewards, presenting added demands for behavioral self-regulation-an area in which students with ADHD are already vulnerable. Despite the significant impact of ADHD in college and the unique challenges presented by the college context, virtually no treatment development research has been conducted with this population. In order to provide a framework to guide intervention development, this comprehensive review integrates research from three key domains that inform treatment for college students with ADHD: (1) functional impairment associated with ADHD among college students, (2) etiology of ADHD and the developmental context for ADHD among emerging adults (age 18-24), and (3) treatment outcome research for ADHD among adolescents and adults. A detailed set of proposed treatment targets and intervention principles are identified, and key challenges associated with treatment development in this population are discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Ranch S.A.,Child and Family Research Institute | Lanphear B.P.,Simon Fraser University
Future of Children | Year: 2012

Much public attention and many resources are focused on medical research to identify risk factors and mitigate symptoms of disability for individual children. But this focus will inevitably fail to prevent disabilities. Stephen Rauch and Bruce Lanphear argue for a broader focus on environmental influences that put entire populations at risk. They argue that identifying and eliminating or controlling environmental risk factors that incrementally increase the prevalence of disability is the key to preventing many disorders. Source

Warburton W.,University of British Columbia | Hertzman C.,University of British Columbia | Oberlander T.F.,University of British Columbia | Oberlander T.F.,Child and Family Research Institute
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine whether risk for adverse neonatal outcomes are reduced by stopping SSRI use before the end of pregnancy. Method: Using population health data, maternal health and prenatal SSRI prescriptions were linked to neonatal birth records (N = 119 547) (1998-2001). Neonates SSRI-exposed in the last 14 days (L14) of gestation were compared with infants who had gestational exposure, but not during the last 14 days (NL14). Propensity score matching was used to control for potential confounders (total exposure, maternal health characteristics). Results: Increased risk for neonatal respiratory distress was present where L14 exposure occurred compared with risk where exposure stopped before L14. However, controlling for potential maternal and neonatal confounders, differences disappeared. Conclusion: Controlling for maternal illness severity, reducing exposure to SSRI's at the end of pregnancy had no significant clinical effect on improving neonatal health. These findings raise the possibility that some adverse neonatal outcomes may not be an acute pharmacological condition such as toxicity or withdrawal. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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