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Hvelplund C.,Copenhagen University | Hvelplund C.,University Hospital Herlev | Hansen B.M.,Copenhagen University | Koch S.V.,Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Center | And 3 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence, age at diagnosis, and associations between perinatal risk factors of feeding and eating disorders (FED) diagnosed at hospital in children aged 0 to 3 years. METHODS: A nationwide cohort of 901 227 children was followed until 48 months of age in the national registers from 1997 to 2010. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for FED diagnosis according to the International Classification of Diseases and associations with perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1365 children (53% girls) were diagnosed with FED at hospital, corresponding to a cumulative incidence of 1.6 per 1000 live births. High risk of FED was seen in children born before gestational week 28 (HR, 3.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.15-5.78). HRs were 3.74 for children small for gestational age ≤3 SD (95% CI, 2.71-5.17) and 4.71 in those with congenital malformations (95% CI, 3.86-5.74). Increased risk of FED was associated with female gender (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.08-1.34), maternal smoking in pregnancy (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.08-1.42), immigrant status (HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.92-2.61), and being the firstborn (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.19-1.50). CONCLUSIONS: FED in referred children aged 0 to 3 years are associated with perinatal adversities, female gender, maternal smoking in pregnancy, being firstborn, and having immigrant parents. The results suggest complex causal mechanisms of FED and underscore the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the clinical management of young children with persistent problems of feeding, eating, and weight faltering. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Mouridsen S.E.,Copenhagen University | Rich B.,Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Center | Isager T.,Glostrup University Hospital
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology | Year: 2010

Aim: To study the sex ratio (proportion of males) in siblings of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) as children. Method: In the current study, we extended previous studies dealing with the androgen theory of autism and examined sex ratios in the siblings of 326 individuals with ASD (245 males, 81 females) who had been consecutively assessed at two Danish university clinics of child psychiatry during the 25-year period from 1960 to 1985. Results: Among the 513 siblings, 300 were males and 213 females. This yields a sex ratio of 0.585, which is significantly higher than the Danish live-birth sex ratio over the same period (0.514, p=0.001). The sibling sex ratio was not associated with the IQ in the autistic probands. Interpretation: Our findings suggest a potential indirect confirmation of the androgen theory of autism. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2009.

Storebo O.J.,Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Center | Storebo O.J.,Psychiatric Research Unit | Storebo O.J.,Copenhagen University | Pedersen J.,Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Center | And 8 more authors.
Trials | Year: 2011

Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hyperactive and impulsive, cannot maintain attention, and have difficulties with social interactions. Medical treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD, but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social-skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We want to examine the effects of social-skills training on difficulties related to the children's ADHD symptoms and social interactions.Methods/Design: The design is randomised two-armed, parallel group, assessor-blinded trial. Children aged 8-12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD are randomised to social-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone. A sample size calculation estimated that at least 52 children must be included to show a 4-point difference in the primary outcome on the Conners 3rdEdition subscale for 'hyperactivity-impulsivity' between the intervention group and the control group. The outcomes will be assessed 3 and 6 months after randomisation. The primary outcome measure is ADHD symptoms. The secondary outcome is social skills. Tertiary outcomes include the relationship between social skills and symptoms of ADHD, the ability to form attachment, and parents' ADHD symptoms.Discussion: We hope that the results from this trial will show that the social-skills training together with medication may have a greater general effect on ADHD symptoms and social and emotional competencies than medication alone.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT00937469. © 2011 Storebø et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mouridsen S.E.,Copenhagen University | Rich B.,Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Center | Isager T.,Copenhagen University
Child: Care, Health and Development | Year: 2010

Background: A number of studies have indicated a link between gastrointestinal (GI) diseases and autism spectrum disorders. Method: The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of GI diseases in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with GI diseases in 336 matched controls from the general population, based on data from the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register (DNHR). The average observation time was 30.3 years (SD 0.4) (range 27-30 years), and mean age at the end of the observation period was 42.7 years (SD 7.7) (range between 27 and 57 years of age). Results: Of the 118 individuals with IA, 97 (82.2%) had been in contact with a medical hospital (inpatient hospitalization or outpatient visits) during the observation period, compared with 312/336 (92.9%) in the control group (P= 0.001). A similar proportion of members from the case and comparison group had a diagnosis of any GI disease in the DNHR: 30.5% against 30.7%, but the nature of their diseases may be somewhat different. Only diseases of oral cavity were significantly associated with IA: 20.3% against 1.2%, P < 0.0001. Otherwise, specific GI diseases occurred with low frequency in both groups. Conclusion: Overall, no evidence was found that patients with IA were more likely than control persons without IA to have defined GI diseases during the 30.3-year observation period. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Rasmussen H.B.,Copenhagen University | Bjerre D.,Copenhagen University | Linnet K.,Copenhagen University | Jurgens G.,Copenhagen University | And 15 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2015

CES1 is involved in the hydrolysis of ester group-containing xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds including several essential and commonly used drugs. The individual variation in the efficacy and tolerability of many drugs metabolized by CES1 is considerable. Hence, there is a large interest in individualizing the treatment with these drugs. The present review addresses the issue of individualized treatment with drugs metabolized by CES1. It describes the composition of the gene encoding CES1, reports variants of this gene with focus upon those with a potential effect on drug metabolism and provides an overview of the protein structure of this enzyme bringing notice to mechanisms involved in the regulation of enzyme activity. Subsequently, the review highlights drugs metabolized by CES1 and argues that individual differences in the pharmacokinetics of these drugs play an important role in determining drug response and tolerability suggesting prospects for individualized drug therapies. Our review also discusses endogenous substrates of CES1 and assesses the potential of using metabolomic profiling of blood to identify proxies for the hepatic activity of CES1 that predict the rate of drug metabolism. Finally, the combination of genetics and metabolomics to obtain an accurate prediction of the individual response to CES1-dependent drugs is discussed. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd.

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