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Tamilnadu, India

Gopi D.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Indira J.,Periyar University | And 2 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Hydroxyapatite [HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2] is the main inorganic component of bone material and is widely used in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this paper we have reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by green template method using the extracts of three different natural sources which contain tartaric acid and also from commercially available one. The extracts of banana, grape and tamarind are taken as the sources of tartaric acid. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Also the antibacterial activity of HAP with different concentrations against two pathogen bacteria strains Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella (Gram-negative bacteria) were tested. The results show that the particles of all the samples are of nanosized and pure. The crystallinity decreases as changing the sources of tartaric acid from commercial to natural one and also changing the natural sources from banana to tamarind extracts. The formation of nanorods are found in all the samples but the nanorods with uniform size distribution can be obtained only by using the tamarind extract as the source of tartaric acid. Moreover, the as-synthesised HAP nanorods derived from natural sources exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against both E. coli and Klebsiella at a concentration of 100 μl. The HAP nanorods synthesized by this method can act as a potential candidate for various biomedical applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Valliathal M.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Uthayakumar R.,Gandhigram University
International Journal of Data Analysis Techniques and Strategies | Year: 2011

This paper discusses a deterministic inventory model for Weibull deteriorating items with partial backlogging under ramp type demand function. Shortages are allowed. Here we consider replenishment cycles, the time at which shortage begins; replenishment time and the optimal selling price are taken as decision variables. The objective of this model is to maximise the total profit (TP) which includes the sales revenue, purchase cost, the set up cost, holding cost, shortage cost and opportunity cost due to lost sales. We extend the results to ameliorating items also. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the model. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Dhachanamoorthi N.,Vellalar College for Women | Begum A.N.,Chikkaiah Naicker College
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

Polypyrrole-nickel(II) oxide (PPy-NiO) nanocomposites have been synthesized for the first time through an in situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of NiO nanoparticles of less than 50 nm. The organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite materials PPy-NiO with different NiO (25, 50 and 100 %) in wt. % were prepared by mechanical mixing method. The monomer (pyrrole) was used as an oxidizing agent (ammonium peroxydisulfate) and added dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSNa) as a dopant and the mixture was continuously stirring well and maintained at 0-5 °C, after synthesized, the nanoparticle nickel oxide powder was added. The FTIR results, reveals the presence of the vibration bands of a dopant ion and other characterization bands, which confirm the prepared samples were polymer nanocomposite samples. Further, characterization studies such as, UV-VIS spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also reveals the presence of nanocomposite. An analytical technique for the elemental analysis characterization was analyzed by the use of energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectroscopy (EDAX). © Asian Journal of Chemistry 2013.

Gopi D.,Periyar University | Kanimozhi K.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | And 2 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

Hydroxyapatite [HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2] is the main inorganic component of natural bone and is widely used in various biomedical applications. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles by banana peel pectin mediated green template method. The pectin extracted from the peels of banana and its various concentrations were exploited in our study to achieve a controlled crystallinity, particle size as well as uniform morphology of HAP. The extracted pectin was characterized by spectral techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the functional group analysis, proton-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) for the identification of H and C atoms in the extracted pectin, respectively. The HAP nanoparticles were synthesized using different concentrations of the as-extracted pectin. The purity, crystallinity and morphology of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were evaluated by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Moreover the antibacterial activity of HAP nanoparticles was evaluated against the gram positive and negative bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. The experimental results revealed that the HAP nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of an optimized concentration of pectin are pure, low crystalline, spherical and discrete particles with reduced size. Also, the HAP sample derived in the presence of pectin showed an enhanced antibacterial activity than that of the HAP synthesized in the absence of pectin. Hence, the HAP nanoparticles synthesized using pectin as a green template can act as a good biomaterial for biomedical applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Rajkumar M.,Annamalai University | Rajkumar M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Rahman M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Reni Prabha A.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Phukan B.,Assam Agricultural University
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria | Year: 2013

Background. Long whiskered catfish, Mystus gulio (Hamilton, 1822), enjoys a high consumer preference and market demand in many Asian countries including India. However, the growth of this fish is very slow under normal aquaculture conditions. The non-hormonal growth promoter-cholymbi-which contains minerals and the essential amino acids lysine and methionine, is widely used in livestock and poultry as a feed additive to improve growth and survival. Supplementing feed with cholymbi may increase the growth and survival of Mystus gulio. Materials and methods. A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary cholymbi supplementation on growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio of long whiskered catfish fingerlings. Four isoproteic diets (crude protein 37%) were formulated to incorporate cholymbi at 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% diet. The diets were fed to triplicate groups offish twice daily to supply 5% of the total body weight per day for 120 days. Water quality parameters were maintained within the range suitable for catfish growth. Results. Weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were all affected by diet (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). The group fed the 0.50% cholymbi diet had the highest WG and PER and the lowest FCR, although not significantly different from the group fed the 0.25% cholymbi diet. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in carcass proximate composition of catfish fed diets containing these different levels of cholymbi. Gut protease, amylase, and lipase activities were stimulated by dietary inclusion of cholymbi at all levels compared to control. Conclusion. As cholymbi is a newly introduced dietary supplement for fish, more research is needed to optimize its supplementation to improve growth, PER, FCR, and survival of long whiskered catfish. Until then, a diet with 0.50% cholymbi can be recommended to improve the aquaculture production of this species.

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