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Dhachanamoorthi N.,Vellalar College for Women | Begum A.N.,Chikkaiah Naicker College
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

Polypyrrole-nickel(II) oxide (PPy-NiO) nanocomposites have been synthesized for the first time through an in situ chemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of NiO nanoparticles of less than 50 nm. The organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposite materials PPy-NiO with different NiO (25, 50 and 100 %) in wt. % were prepared by mechanical mixing method. The monomer (pyrrole) was used as an oxidizing agent (ammonium peroxydisulfate) and added dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSNa) as a dopant and the mixture was continuously stirring well and maintained at 0-5 °C, after synthesized, the nanoparticle nickel oxide powder was added. The FTIR results, reveals the presence of the vibration bands of a dopant ion and other characterization bands, which confirm the prepared samples were polymer nanocomposite samples. Further, characterization studies such as, UV-VIS spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) also reveals the presence of nanocomposite. An analytical technique for the elemental analysis characterization was analyzed by the use of energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectroscopy (EDAX). © Asian Journal of Chemistry 2013.


Rajkumar M.,Annamalai University | Rajkumar M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Rahman M.M.,International Islamic University Malaysia | Reni Prabha A.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Phukan B.,Assam Agricultural University
Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria | Year: 2013

Background. Long whiskered catfish, Mystus gulio (Hamilton, 1822), enjoys a high consumer preference and market demand in many Asian countries including India. However, the growth of this fish is very slow under normal aquaculture conditions. The non-hormonal growth promoter-cholymbi-which contains minerals and the essential amino acids lysine and methionine, is widely used in livestock and poultry as a feed additive to improve growth and survival. Supplementing feed with cholymbi may increase the growth and survival of Mystus gulio. Materials and methods. A feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary cholymbi supplementation on growth, survival, and feed conversion ratio of long whiskered catfish fingerlings. Four isoproteic diets (crude protein 37%) were formulated to incorporate cholymbi at 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 0.75% diet. The diets were fed to triplicate groups offish twice daily to supply 5% of the total body weight per day for 120 days. Water quality parameters were maintained within the range suitable for catfish growth. Results. Weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were all affected by diet (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). The group fed the 0.50% cholymbi diet had the highest WG and PER and the lowest FCR, although not significantly different from the group fed the 0.25% cholymbi diet. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in carcass proximate composition of catfish fed diets containing these different levels of cholymbi. Gut protease, amylase, and lipase activities were stimulated by dietary inclusion of cholymbi at all levels compared to control. Conclusion. As cholymbi is a newly introduced dietary supplement for fish, more research is needed to optimize its supplementation to improve growth, PER, FCR, and survival of long whiskered catfish. Until then, a diet with 0.50% cholymbi can be recommended to improve the aquaculture production of this species.


Gopi D.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Indira J.,Periyar University | Kavitha L.,Periyar University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2, HAP] particles have been successfully synthesized by a cost-effective, eco-friendly green template method using natural and commercially available sucrose as a chelating agent. The sucrose used in this method has been extracted from various sources, three from natural and one from commercially available sources are exploited in our study to achieve a controlled crystallinity, particle size as well as uniform morphology. Spectral characterizations involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the functional group analysis of sucrose and HAP; carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) for the identification of the carbon atoms in sucrose and in HAP; liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the determination of the hydrolyzed products of sucrose; and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques for the phase identification of the HAP particles were performed. The morphology of the HAP particles were assessed thoroughly using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The experimental results indicate that the obtained HAP using the natural sucrose as a chelating agent is of phase pure, with a well defined morphology having discrete particles without any agglomeration than the HAP from commercially available sucrose. Further, the reduced particle size can be achieved from the stem sugarcane extract as the source of the chelating agent. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Gopi D.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Indira J.,Periyar University | And 2 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

Hydroxyapatite [HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2] is the main inorganic component of bone material and is widely used in various biomedical applications due to its excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this paper we have reported the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanorods by green template method using the extracts of three different natural sources which contain tartaric acid and also from commercially available one. The extracts of banana, grape and tamarind are taken as the sources of tartaric acid. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Also the antibacterial activity of HAP with different concentrations against two pathogen bacteria strains Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella (Gram-negative bacteria) were tested. The results show that the particles of all the samples are of nanosized and pure. The crystallinity decreases as changing the sources of tartaric acid from commercial to natural one and also changing the natural sources from banana to tamarind extracts. The formation of nanorods are found in all the samples but the nanorods with uniform size distribution can be obtained only by using the tamarind extract as the source of tartaric acid. Moreover, the as-synthesised HAP nanorods derived from natural sources exhibited a strong antibacterial activity against both E. coli and Klebsiella at a concentration of 100 μl. The HAP nanorods synthesized by this method can act as a potential candidate for various biomedical applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Valliathal M.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Uthayakumar R.,Tamil University
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the optimal pricing and replenishment policies of an economic order quantity model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items with partial backlogging over an infinite time horizon. The model is studied under the replenishment policy starting with no shortages. The backlogging rate is any non-increasing function of the waiting time up to the next replenishment. The objective of this model is to maximize the total profit which includes the sales revenue, purchasing cost, set up cost, holding cost, shortage cost, and opportunity cost due to lost sales. Here, the selling price, replenishment quantity, replenishment cycle length, and the time duration of the positive inventory level are taken as decision variables to maximize the profit of the inventory system. The existence and the uniqueness of the solution of the proposed inventory system are examined. We suggest a solution procedure to find the optimal solution of the described model. Numerical examples are presented to determine the developed model and the solution procedure. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters is carried out and some useful managerial results are obtained. © Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010.


Valliathal M.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Uthayakumar R.,Gandhigram University
International Journal of Data Analysis Techniques and Strategies | Year: 2011

This paper discusses a deterministic inventory model for Weibull deteriorating items with partial backlogging under ramp type demand function. Shortages are allowed. Here we consider replenishment cycles, the time at which shortage begins; replenishment time and the optimal selling price are taken as decision variables. The objective of this model is to maximise the total profit (TP) which includes the sales revenue, purchase cost, the set up cost, holding cost, shortage cost and opportunity cost due to lost sales. We extend the results to ameliorating items also. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the model. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Valliathal M.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Uthayakumar R.,Tamil University
International Journal of Industrial and Systems Engineering | Year: 2011

This paper discusses the effects of shortages on an inventory model for deteriorating items with shortages under supplier's credit linked to maximum inventory level. The proposed model is studied under the replenishment policy, starting with no shortages. The backlogging rate is a nonincreasing function of the waiting time up to the next replenishment. The objective of this model is to minimise the total cost of the retailer. Cycle length, maximum inventory level and duration of positive inventory level are taken as the decision variables. Usually, retailers have to face many types of demand for different kinds of goods. In the proposed model, demand is considered as a function of stock and time. The existence and uniqueness of the optimal solutions of the developed models are examined. We propose a solution procedure to find the solution and obtain some managerial results using sensitivity analysis. Numerical examples are presented to determine the developed model and the solution procedure. Sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to major parameters is carried out. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.


Gopi D.,Periyar University | Kanimozhi K.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Periyar University | Bhuvaneshwari N.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | And 2 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2014

Hydroxyapatite [HAP, Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2] is the main inorganic component of natural bone and is widely used in various biomedical applications. In this paper, we have reported the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles by banana peel pectin mediated green template method. The pectin extracted from the peels of banana and its various concentrations were exploited in our study to achieve a controlled crystallinity, particle size as well as uniform morphology of HAP. The extracted pectin was characterized by spectral techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the functional group analysis, proton-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR) for the identification of H and C atoms in the extracted pectin, respectively. The HAP nanoparticles were synthesized using different concentrations of the as-extracted pectin. The purity, crystallinity and morphology of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles were evaluated by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Moreover the antibacterial activity of HAP nanoparticles was evaluated against the gram positive and negative bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. The experimental results revealed that the HAP nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of an optimized concentration of pectin are pure, low crystalline, spherical and discrete particles with reduced size. Also, the HAP sample derived in the presence of pectin showed an enhanced antibacterial activity than that of the HAP synthesized in the absence of pectin. Hence, the HAP nanoparticles synthesized using pectin as a green template can act as a good biomaterial for biomedical applications. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Mubarak Ali M.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Raj V.,Periyar University
Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters) | Year: 2014

We have synthesized a series of the ceramic coatings by anodization of aluminium using lithium sulphate and sodium silicate additive. Our experiments show that the present coatings are nanocomposites in nature, consisting of a mixture of nanocrystalline alumina, silica, aluminium silicate and mullite; the formation of alumina was similar to conventional anodizing technology, while the formation of mullite was attributed to an addition of sodium silicate. The microhardness of the coatings progressively increased with the increasing current density up to 0.2 A/cm2, which could mainly be attributed to the decrease of porosity in the interfacial region of the oxides up to the range. From the performance of the coatings against corrosion (Tafel/Nyquist plots), it was inferred that the coatings fabricated by lithium sulphate- sodium silicate bath have enhanced corrosion resistance (Rp = 3.12 kΩ), as well as better microhardness value than that of the lithium sulphate bath alone (Rp = 660.96 Ω) which confirm the perception that the silica particles included in the anodized alumina matrices randomly. Presence of Al, Si and O indicated that the electrolyte components had been intensively incorporated into the coatings. © The Chinese Society for Metals and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014.


Valliathal M.,Chikkaiah Naicker College | Uthayakumar R.,Tamil University
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2013

This paper discusses a production model for non-instantaneous Weibull deteriorating items with complete backlogging over an infinite time horizon and also extended to the finite time horizon. The model is studied under the production policy starting with shortages. The objective of this model is to minimise the total cost to the manufacturer which is the sum of the setup cost, production cost, holding cost and shortage cost. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the real-life applications of the proposed model. Sensitivity analyses of the major inventory parameters are carried out. Some useful managerial applications are obtained by using sensitivity analysis. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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