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Kochi, Japan

Kimura T.,Kyoto University | Morimoto T.,Kinki University | Natsuaki M.,Kyoto University | Shiomi H.,Kyoto University | And 17 more authors.

Background-Several recent randomized trials comparing everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) reported similar outcomes. However, only 1 trial was powered for a clinical end point, and no trial was powered for evaluating target-lesion revascularization. Methods and Results-Randomized Evaluation of Sirolimus-eluting versus Everolimus-eluting stent Trial is a prospective multicenter randomized open-label trial comparing EES with SES in Japan. The trial was powered for evaluating noninferiority of EES relative to SES in terms of target-lesion revascularization. From February and July 2010, 3197 patients were randomly assigned to receive either EES (1597 patients) or SES (1600 patients). At 1 year, the primary efficacy end point of target-lesion revascularization occurred in 65 patients (4.3%) in the EES group and in 76 patients (5.0%) in the SES group, demonstrating noninferiority of EES to SES (Pnoninferiority<0.0001, and Psuperiority=0.34). Cumulative incidence of definite stent thrombosis was low and similar between the 2 groups (0.32% versus 0.38%, P=0.77). An angiographic substudy enrolling 571 patients (EES, 285 patients and SES, 286 patients) demonstrated noninferiority of EES relative to SES regarding the primary angiographic end point of in-segment late loss (0.06±0.37 mm versus 0.02±0.46 mm, Pnoninferiority<0.0001, and Psuperiority=0.24) at 278±63 days after index stent implantation. Conclusions-One-year clinical and angiographic outcome after EES implantation was noninferior to and not different from that after SES implantation in a stable coronary artery disease population with relatively less complex coronary anatomy. One-year clinical outcome after both EES and SES use was excellent with a low rate of target-lesion revascularization and a very low rate of stent thrombosis. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01035450. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Inoue H.,University of Toyama | Okumura K.,Hirosaki University | Atarashi H.,Nippon Medical School | Yamashita T.,The Cardiovascular Institute | And 18 more authors.
Circulation Journal

Background: Target anticoagulation levels for warfarin in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are unclear. Methods and Results: Of 7,406 patients with NVAF, 1,002 did not receive warfarin (non-warfarin group), and the remaining patients receiving warfarin were divided into 5 groups based on their baseline international normalized ratio (INR) of prothrombin time (≤1.59, 1.6-1.99, 2.0-2.59, 2.6-2.99, and ≥3.0). Patients were followed-up prospec-tively for 2 years. Primary endpoints were thromboembolic events (cerebral infarction, transient ischemic attack, and systemic embolism), and major hemorrhage requiring hospital admission. During the follow-up period, thromboem-bolic events occurred in 3.0% of non-warfarin group, but at lower frequencies in the warfarin groups (2.0, 1.3, 1.5, 0.6, and 1.8%/2 years for INR values of ≤1.59, 1.6-1.99, 2.0-2.59, 2.6-2.99, and ≥3.0, respectively; P=0.0059). Major hemorrhage occurred more frequently in warfarin groups (1.5, 1.8, 2.4, 3.3, and 4.1% for INR values ≤1.59, 1.6-1.99, 2.0-2.59, 2.6-2.99, and ≥3.0, respectively; P=0.0041) than in non-warfarin group (0.8%/2 years). These trends were maintained when the analyses were confined to patients aged ≥70 years. Conclusions: An INR of 1.6-2.6 is safe and effective at preventing thromboembolic events in patients with NVAF, particularly patients aged ≥70 years. An INR of 2.6-2.99 is also effective, but associated with a slightly increased risk in major hemorrhage. Source

Inoue K.,Kochi Medical School | Fukuhara H.,Kochi Medical School | Shimamoto T.,Kochi Medical School | Kamada M.,Kochi Medical School | And 8 more authors.

Background: This study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical value of photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) with intravesical and oral instillation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (ALA-PDD), and transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) guided by ALA-PDD (PDD-TURBT) for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods: Of all 210 cases, 75 underwent PDD with intravesically applied ALA, and 135 cases underwent PDD with orally applied ALA. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by comparing the level on images of ALA-induced fluorescence with the pathological result. PDD-TURBT was performed in 99 completely resectable cases corresponding to 210 ALA-PDD cases. To evaluate the abilities of PDD-TURBT, survival analysis regarding intravesical recurrence was retrospectively compared with the historical control cases that underwent conventional TURBT. Results: The diagnostic accuracy and capability of ALA-PDD were significantly superior to those of conventional endoscopic examination. Moreover, 72.1% of flat lesions, including dysplasia and carcinoma in situ, could be detected only by ALA-PDD. The recurrence-free survival rate in the cases that underwent PDD-TURBT was significantly higher than that of conventional TURBT. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that the only independent factor contributing to improving prognosis was PDD-TURBT (hazard ratio, 0.578; P =.012). Regardless of the ALA administration route, there was no significant difference in diagnostic accuracy, ability of PDD, or recurrence-free survival. All procedures were well tolerated by all patients without any severe adverse events. Conclusions: This multicenter study is likely to be biased, because it is limited by the retrospective analysis. This study suggests that regardless of the ALA administration route, ALA-PDD and PDD-TURBT are remarkably helpful in detection and intraoperative navigation programs. © 2011 American Cancer Society. Source

Hosokawa T.,Kochi University | Kumon Y.,Kochi University | Kobayashi T.,Kochi University | Enzan H.,Kochi University | And 4 more authors.
Histology and Histopathology

To clarify the clinical implications of neutrophils in vulnerable plaques we evaluated the function and activity of infiltrated neutrophils in an atherosclerotic plaque, focusing on oxidant production. A histopathological investigation was performed using carotid arterial samples obtained from seven patients. The atherosclerotic plaques were examined cytochemically for naphthol-ASD-chloroacetate esterase activity and oxidant-production, and immunohistochemically using N-formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (fPRL1)-, CD66b-, CD68-or p22phox-specific antibodies. The cytoplasmic fPRL1 intensity value of the neutrophils in the plaque was estimated using an activity index. Naphthol-ASD-chloroacetate esterase activity was found in cells located in the atherosclerotic plaque, indicating that the cells were neutrophils. The cytoplasmic fPRL1 intensity value of the neutrophils in the plaque decreased to approximately 60% of the intensity observed in the capillary vessels. Oxidantproduction was also detected in the plaques, and both neutrophils and macrophages were observed at the corresponding oxidant-production sites. p22phox expression was also located in the same areas in which oxidant-production was observed in these plaques. We could not directly evaluate how much ROS generated from the infiltrated neutrophils contributed the plaque vulnerability followed by its rupture. However, the infiltrated neutrophils in the atherosclerotic plaques morphologically appeared activated and were actively generating oxidant, implying that neutrophils, together with macrophages, infiltrate into atherosclerotic plaques and contribute to plaque vulnerability. Source

Toyofuku M.,Wakayama Medical Center | Kimura T.,Kyoto University | Morimoto T.,Kinki University | Hayashi Y.,Tsuchiya General Hospital | And 11 more authors.
JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions

Objectives This study assessed 5-year outcomes after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) for unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) disease in comparison with that for non-left main disease. Background More information on long-term outcomes after ULMCA stenting is needed. Methods The j-Cypher is a multicenter prospective registry of consecutive patients undergoing SES implantation in Japan. Results Among 12,812 patients enrolled in the j-Cypher registry, the unadjusted mortality rate at 5 years was significantly higher in patients with ULMCA stenting than in patients without ULMCA stenting (22.8% vs. 14.1%; p < 0.0001); however, the risk for death with ULMCA stenting was no longer significant after adjusting for confounders (hazard ratio: 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.95 to 1.46; p = 0.14). In the lesion-level comparison, the nonbifurcation ULMCA lesions treated exclusively with SES had a significantly lower rate of target lesion revascularization (TLR) than those in non-ULMCA nonbifurcation lesions (2.4% vs. 12.7%; p = 0.04). Among bifurcation lesions, those treated with a provisional 2-stent approach had similar rates of TLR (12.1% vs. 11.4%; p = 0.79) between the ULMCA and non-ULMCA groups. Lesions treated with an elective 2-stent approach had higher TLR rates in the ULMCA group as compared with the non-ULMCA group (33.5% vs. 19.7%; p = 0.002). Conclusions The safety of ULMCA stenting relative to non-LMCA stenting was maintained through 5 years follow-up. In terms of efficacy, SES implantation in nonbifurcation ULMCA lesions was associated with an extremely low cumulative incidence of TLR, whereas the elective 2-stent approach for ULMCA bifurcation lesions was associated with a markedly higher cumulative incidence of TLR as compared with that for non-ULMCA bifurcation lesions. © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

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