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Wojtyla A.,Polish Institute of Agricultural Medicine | Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Bilinski P.,Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine | Jaworska-luczak B.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2010

The principal State authorities responsible for food safety in Poland are primarily the national Chief Sanitary Inspectorate followed by the Chief Veterinary Inspectorate, who are both statutorily empowered to discharge their functions within their competencies defined by the regulations. This article presents the current status of legislation in the area of food safety together with a description of how systems governing this field are organised in Poland. It should be noted that the surveillance and monitoring of food safety covers the entire food chain. Also outlined is the way the RASFF system operates in Poland, including its track record of experience up to the present time as well as how the role of EFSA is integrated into these areas.


Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Bilinski P.,Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine | Wojtyla A.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

The interaction between environmental signals and genes has now taken on a clear molecular form as demonstrated by stable changes in chromatin structure. These changes occur through activation or repression of specific gene programmes by a combination of chromatin remodelling, activation and enzymatic modification of DNA and histones as well as nucleosomal subunit exchange. Recent research investigating the molecular mechanisms controlling drug-induced transcriptional, behavioural and synaptic activity has shown a direct role for chromatin remodelling - termed as epigenetic regulation - of neuronal gene programmes and subsequent addictive behaviour arising from it. Recent data suggest that repeated exposure to certain drugs promotes changes in levels of histone acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation, together with alterations in DNA methylation levels in the neurons of the brain reward centre, localised in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) region of the limbic system. The combination of acetylating, phosphorylating and methylating H3 and H4 histone tails alter chromatin compaction thereby promoting altered levels of cellular gene expression. Histone modifications, which weaken histone interaction with DNA or that promote recruitment of transcriptional activating complexes, correlate with permissive gene expression. Histone deacetylation, (which strengthen histone: DNA contacts), or histone methylation, (which recruits repressive complexes to chromatin), promote a state of transcriptional repression. Using animal models, acute cocaine treatment increases H4 acetylation at acutely regulated gene promoters, whereas H3 acetylation appears to predominate at chronically induced promoters. Chronic cocaine and alcohol treatment activate and repress many genes such as FosB, Cdk5, and Bdnf, where their dysregulation, at the chromatin level, contribute to the development and maintenance of addiction. Following drug exposure, it is still unknown, howver, how long these changes in chromatin structure persist in affecting neuronal function, but some do so for life.


Wojtyla A.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Health Management Technology | Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Physical activity is among the basic human needs and is the key precondition for the maintenance and enhancement of health throughout all periods of life. Physical inactivity is now identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity levels are rising in many countries, with major implications for the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and the general health of the population worldwide. An adequate level of physical activity among young women at reproductive age is especially important because it is one of the preconditions affecting their capability for procreation which, to a great extent, affects their activity during pregnancy and conditions the course of pregnancy and labour. Unfortunately, many scientific reports indicate a decrease in physical activity among adolescents, especially girls. The primary cause of this alarming phenomenon are changes in behaviours, including an increasingly greater amount of time devoted to so-called sedentary activities. Such negative health behaviours of women may have negative health effects on the functioning of their organism and, in the future, on the development of their off spring. The objective of the presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among women at reproductive age (prior to conception), and pregnant women in Poland. The study group covered 3,940 women, (730 girls aged up to 15, and 3,210 women aged over 15), and 6,252 pregnant women. The survey was conducted among schoolchildren and students during the last quarter of 2011, while the survey among pregnant women was carried out twice: in the second quarter of 2010, and in the third quarter of 2011. The results of the study revealed a relatively low level of physical activity among young women and pregnant women. The analysis showed an alarming downward tendency in the physical activity of women related to age. Such a decrease in physical activity among girls already during the period of puberty may be of key importance during the period of maturity, especially when they become pregnant. It is highly recommended, therefore, that effective actions should be taken in the area of public health; this would enhance the social awareness, especially among females, concerning the importance of physical activity for the normal development of the organism and an adequate course of pregnancy and labour.


Bergier J.,John Paul II State Higher Vocational School | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Health Management Technology | Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

The alarming problem of a decline in physical activity among children and adolescents and its detrimental effects on public health has been well recognised worldwide. Low physical activity is responsible for 6% of deaths worldwide and 5-10% of deaths in the countries of the WHO European Region, according to country. Within the last decade, many initiatives have been launched to counteract this phenomenon. The objective of presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among adolescents and young adults in Poland, according to the IPAQ questionnaire. The study group covered 7,716 adolescents: 5,086 children attending high school and secondary schools and 2,630 university students. Low physical activity was noted among 57% of schoolchildren and 20.84% of students. Analysis of the level of physical activity according to the IPAQ indicated that it was lower among girls, compared to boys. An additional analysis, with the consideration of the place of residence, showed that the highest percentage of the population with low physical activity was noted in the rural areas (29.30%), while among the urban inhabitants of cities with a population above 100,000 it was on the level of 23.69% and 20.57%. Median for weekly physical activity by respondents' gender was on the level of 1,554.00 MET*min. weekly among females, and 2,611.00 MET*min. weekly among males (p<0.000). The highest weekly physical activity expressed in MET*min. was observed among the inhabitants of towns with a population less than 100,000, whereas among the rural population and inhabitants of large cities with a population of over 100,000 the weekly physical activity was on a similar level (1,830.50 and 1,962.00 respectively). An extended analysis of respondents' physical activity showed that during the day students spend significantly more time in a sedentary position, compared to schoolchildren. The presented results of studies indicate the necessity to continue and intensify actions to promote various forms of physical activity among students and schoolchildren. A constant decrease in physical activity observed among children and adolescents suggests that it is necessary to pay greater attention to this social group while developing health programmes.


Wojtyla A.,Institute of Rural Health in Lublin | Gozdziewska M.,Institute of Rural Health in Lublin | Paprzycki P.,Institute of Rural Health | Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Bilinski P.,Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Epidemiological studies in Poland show that tobacco smoking by adolescents at reproductive age is still frequently observed. This concerns both boys and girls. The study was based on all-Polish population studies of health behaviours of adolescents aged 14-24 (Youth Behavioural Polish Survey - YBPS) conducted in 2011, and the Pregnancy-related Assessment Monitoring Survey (PrAMS). More than 12% of pregnant women do not discontinue smoking in association with becoming pregnant and expose the foetus to tobacco smoke, despite being aware of the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the mother and child. Smoking in pregnancy is mainly observed among mothers with a low education level and those aged under 23. According to the Baker's Foetal Origins of Adult Health and Diseases Hypothesis, exposure of the foetus to the components of tobacco smoke results in many perturbations in the form of a lower birth weight, prematurity, worse state of neonates after birth, and higher susceptibility to contacting civilization diseases at the age of adulthood. The results of studies confirm some observations. Polish studies clearly confirmed a lower birth weight of babies delivered by mothers who smoke; however, earlier termination of pregnancy and worse status of neonates after birth were not observed. According to the Baker's hypothesis, a lower birth weight of babies delivered by smoking mothers during the further life cycle exposes the offspring to the risk of contracting civilization diseases. The efforts undertaken by public health authorities should be biased towards education of the population at reproductive age about the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the foetus and the offspring born. Women at reproductive age should be encouraged to discontinue smoking in association with the planning of pregnancy and in pregnancy.


Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Bilinski P.,Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Health Management Technology | Jablonski P.,National Bureau for Drug Prevention
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Since 2008, it has been recognised by most health authorities worldwide that the abuse of newly-emerging psychoactive drugs, ('designer drugs'/'legal highs'; DD), in youth is a rapidly increasing problem, especially in the EU, threatening to offset gains made in tackling established and illegal drugs which they are intended to mimic; DD diversity is continually increasing to circumvent laws. The aim of the study was to determine the scale of DD abuse/availability amongst Polish youth. The surveyed test population was randomly selected from a representative group of adolescents attending high schools, secondary schools and universities throughout Poland. Questionnaires were completed by 14,511 subjects (10,083 school pupils and 4,428 students). Few persons from each group admitted using DDs; 453 schoolpupils (4.49%) vs. 81 students (1.83%). More males (4.74%) took DDs than females (2.77%). The tendency to take DDs in the company of friends was high in both DD-taking groups (>80%). DDs were consumed mostly in open spaces (34.15%), discos/pubs (21.13%) and boarding school/friend's house (20.57). Most frequently, DDs came from shops (57.68%), friends (31.46%) or dealers (10.11%). Ensuing symptoms included; happy/euphoric mood (58.80%), talkativeness (42.51%) and hallucinations (22.85%). Over 74% of DDtakers in both groups experienced adverse reactions, and those requiring help sought it from: friends/colleagues (6.74%), doctors (5.06%), and hospitals (4.87%), but most rarely from parents/guardians (2.62%). Urgent action is being taken, especially in youth education, to prevent DDs becoming the serious menace seen with conventional drugs.


Wojtyla A.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Health Management Technology | Paprzycki P.,Institute of Rural Health | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

It is recognized that the levels of women's physical activity during pregnancy has a direct bearing on the method of delivery and health of the newborn. The main objective of the study was investigation the level of physical activity of women during pregnancy according to the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). The subjects of this study were n=2852 post-partum women surveyed together with their newborns, representing all obstetric hospital departments throughout Poland. The questionnaires were completed on a single day during the second week of November 2011. The women were also asked about the amount, range and type of physical activity they performed before becoming pregnant. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for precisely measuring physical activity according to the standard metabolically equivalent (MET). In addition, comparisons were made between the weight of the infant and newborn status using the APGAR scale with the amount of physical activity performed by the mothers. There were decidedly low physical activity levels observed in pregnant women compared to those before becoming pregnant. Appropriate interventions can therefore now be targeted through remedial action in Poland. It is important to perform intervention studies intended to test this hypothesis and attempt to identify the most appropriate levels for intensity, duration and frequency of physical exercise during pregnancy. The studies should consider the four domains of daily physical activity and utilize tools that reliably measure exposure variables. Such studies would provide valuable information for recommendations about physical activity during pregnancy.


Wojtyla A.,Institute of Rural Health | Bojar I.,Institute of Rural Health | Boyle P.,International Prevention Research Institute | Zatonski W.,Center of Oncology of Poland | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System); an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). The health behaviour of a pregnant woman, including adequate nutritional behaviours and supply of all the necessary nutrients, exert an effect on the health of a woman, development of the foetus, and the occurrence of diseases among the offspring at the age of maturity. The objective of the study was analysis of the nutritional behaviours among Polish pregnant women, with particular consideration of the recognition of dietary changes caused by the fact of becoming pregnant. The studies were based on questionnaire forms within the Polish Mother and Child Heath Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise day of studies is appointed annually for the whole of Poland by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system, a central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. More than a half of Polish women change their diet in pregnancy. According to the pregnant women examined, the changes in their diet consist in a more frequent consumption of white meat, fish, fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and dairy products. Favourable changes in diet were observed primarily among the respondents from the urban environment. Considering an insufficient awareness with respect to nutritional behaviours among females at reproductive age, the education of pregnant women and those who plan a pregnancy concerning an adequate diet should be jointly conducted by medical circles, schools, and the media, and directed primarily to women from the rural environment.


Bojar I.,Institute of Rural Health | Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Boyle P.,International Prevention Research Institute | Zatonski W.,Center of Oncology of Poland | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System; an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). In the developed countries prevention programmes proved to be effi cient in reducing morbidity and mortality due to breast and cervical cancer. In Poland, these diseases still constitute a very big problem, despite relatively easy and early diagnostics of pathological conditions preceding their development. The objective of the study was analysis of the usage of prophylactic examinations and the assessment of knowledge concerning risk factors of the development of reproductive cancers among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland. The study was based on questionnaire forms within the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise date of the study for the whole of Poland is announced annually by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The studies of pregnant women in Poland showed that the situation with respect to the performance of prevention examinations for cervical cancer was significantly worse among rural than urban women. Pregnant women from both rural and urban areas very rarely had breast USG performed. Awareness concerning cervical cancer risk factors was lower among rural than urban women. Also, knowledge concerning the examinations which should be performed for the prevention of breast cancer was poorer among rural, compared to urban women. The recognition of the attitudes of women at reproductive age towards prevention examinations is necessary in order to effectively plan health education and social health promotion campaigns aimed at limiting morbidity and mortality due to cancerous diseases.


Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Health Management Technology | Kulpa P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Sawicki K.,Institute of Rural Health | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

In recent years the attention of society, the media and politicians has focused on the negative phenomenon of the occurrence of an enormous amount of new psychoactive substances flooding the European market. In Poland and in Europe they are known under the name 'legal highs' or 'smart drugs'. In many countries these compounds present a serious social and health problem. The core of the problem is the fact that in the light of the law these substances are legal, while actually they imitate the effect of illegal narcotics. Smart drugs are sold allegedly as 'products not intended for human consumption', under the cover of 'collector's commodities', 'incense sticks' or 'bath salts'. Efforts undertaken by many countries, including Poland, are biased towards gaining control over this pathological phenomenon by placing the subsequent substances on the list of prohibited agents. However, the resilient chemical and pharmaceutical industry still remains one step ahead by introducing new derivatives of already banned products, practically identical in action. The presented article is an attempt to bring closer the problem of smart drugs in Poland, from the occurrence of this alarming phenomenon, through the spread of sales in shops all over Poland, to a series of changes in the Polish anti-narcotic law, drastic actions of closing the shops throughout the entire country, and transferring the sale of smart drugs to the internet.

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