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Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Bilinski P.,Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Health Management Technology | Jablonski P.,National Bureau for Drug Prevention
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Since 2008, it has been recognised by most health authorities worldwide that the abuse of newly-emerging psychoactive drugs, ('designer drugs'/'legal highs'; DD), in youth is a rapidly increasing problem, especially in the EU, threatening to offset gains made in tackling established and illegal drugs which they are intended to mimic; DD diversity is continually increasing to circumvent laws. The aim of the study was to determine the scale of DD abuse/availability amongst Polish youth. The surveyed test population was randomly selected from a representative group of adolescents attending high schools, secondary schools and universities throughout Poland. Questionnaires were completed by 14,511 subjects (10,083 school pupils and 4,428 students). Few persons from each group admitted using DDs; 453 schoolpupils (4.49%) vs. 81 students (1.83%). More males (4.74%) took DDs than females (2.77%). The tendency to take DDs in the company of friends was high in both DD-taking groups (>80%). DDs were consumed mostly in open spaces (34.15%), discos/pubs (21.13%) and boarding school/friend's house (20.57). Most frequently, DDs came from shops (57.68%), friends (31.46%) or dealers (10.11%). Ensuing symptoms included; happy/euphoric mood (58.80%), talkativeness (42.51%) and hallucinations (22.85%). Over 74% of DDtakers in both groups experienced adverse reactions, and those requiring help sought it from: friends/colleagues (6.74%), doctors (5.06%), and hospitals (4.87%), but most rarely from parents/guardians (2.62%). Urgent action is being taken, especially in youth education, to prevent DDs becoming the serious menace seen with conventional drugs. Source


Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Bilinski P.,Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine | HoLownia P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Faced with the rapidly growing increase of designer drug abuse, particularly amongst the younger generation, various legislative strategies are currently employed world-wide for tackling this problem - however with mixed results. The key issue is that the producers of DDs are able to either exploit existing legal substances intended for other uses, but which have been found to possess psychoactive properties, or to synthesise new psychoactive substances by introducing chemical modifications, often very minor ones, thereby avoiding the prohibited use of chemicals included on any banned lists. Some countries opt to ban new drugs as and when shown or considered to be harmful, while others introduce sweeping bans based on chemical structure. Nevertheless, an ever increasing diversity of new DDs are constantly appearing on domestic and Internet markets. Poland, together with the UK and Eire, has placed temporary bans on all DDs whenever they have been identified, thus enabling sufficient time for assessing their potential hazards to health. Part of this 'holding' strategy entails a thorough review of the scientific literature, including expert opinion when direct evidence is lacking, as well as information received from EU support organisations Europol and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). This paper, in two parts, therefore aims to provide an up-to-date summary review of available scientific evidence on the harm caused by the six main chemical groupings of DDs found in drug seizures of illegal products recently made in Poland. The first part is devoted to Cannabinoids and Cathinones derivatives. Ensuing legislation can therefore be rapidly formulated to make the bans permanent as appropriate. Source


Wojtyla A.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Institute of Rural Health | Kapka-Skrzypczak L.,Health Management Technology | Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Physical activity is among the basic human needs and is the key precondition for the maintenance and enhancement of health throughout all periods of life. Physical inactivity is now identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical inactivity levels are rising in many countries, with major implications for the prevalence of non-communicable diseases and the general health of the population worldwide. An adequate level of physical activity among young women at reproductive age is especially important because it is one of the preconditions affecting their capability for procreation which, to a great extent, affects their activity during pregnancy and conditions the course of pregnancy and labour. Unfortunately, many scientific reports indicate a decrease in physical activity among adolescents, especially girls. The primary cause of this alarming phenomenon are changes in behaviours, including an increasingly greater amount of time devoted to so-called sedentary activities. Such negative health behaviours of women may have negative health effects on the functioning of their organism and, in the future, on the development of their off spring. The objective of the presented study was analysis of the level of physical activity among women at reproductive age (prior to conception), and pregnant women in Poland. The study group covered 3,940 women, (730 girls aged up to 15, and 3,210 women aged over 15), and 6,252 pregnant women. The survey was conducted among schoolchildren and students during the last quarter of 2011, while the survey among pregnant women was carried out twice: in the second quarter of 2010, and in the third quarter of 2011. The results of the study revealed a relatively low level of physical activity among young women and pregnant women. The analysis showed an alarming downward tendency in the physical activity of women related to age. Such a decrease in physical activity among girls already during the period of puberty may be of key importance during the period of maturity, especially when they become pregnant. It is highly recommended, therefore, that effective actions should be taken in the area of public health; this would enhance the social awareness, especially among females, concerning the importance of physical activity for the normal development of the organism and an adequate course of pregnancy and labour. Source


Bojar I.,Institute of Rural Health | Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Boyle P.,International Prevention Research Institute | Zatonski W.,Center of Oncology of Poland | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System; an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). In the developed countries prevention programmes proved to be effi cient in reducing morbidity and mortality due to breast and cervical cancer. In Poland, these diseases still constitute a very big problem, despite relatively easy and early diagnostics of pathological conditions preceding their development. The objective of the study was analysis of the usage of prophylactic examinations and the assessment of knowledge concerning risk factors of the development of reproductive cancers among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland. The study was based on questionnaire forms within the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise date of the study for the whole of Poland is announced annually by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The studies of pregnant women in Poland showed that the situation with respect to the performance of prevention examinations for cervical cancer was significantly worse among rural than urban women. Pregnant women from both rural and urban areas very rarely had breast USG performed. Awareness concerning cervical cancer risk factors was lower among rural than urban women. Also, knowledge concerning the examinations which should be performed for the prevention of breast cancer was poorer among rural, compared to urban women. The recognition of the attitudes of women at reproductive age towards prevention examinations is necessary in order to effectively plan health education and social health promotion campaigns aimed at limiting morbidity and mortality due to cancerous diseases. Source


Wojtyla A.,Institute of Rural Health in Lublin | Gozdziewska M.,Institute of Rural Health in Lublin | Paprzycki P.,Institute of Rural Health | Bilinski P.,Chief Sanitary Inspectorate | Bilinski P.,Institute of Haematology and Transfusion Medicine
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2012

Epidemiological studies in Poland show that tobacco smoking by adolescents at reproductive age is still frequently observed. This concerns both boys and girls. The study was based on all-Polish population studies of health behaviours of adolescents aged 14-24 (Youth Behavioural Polish Survey - YBPS) conducted in 2011, and the Pregnancy-related Assessment Monitoring Survey (PrAMS). More than 12% of pregnant women do not discontinue smoking in association with becoming pregnant and expose the foetus to tobacco smoke, despite being aware of the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the mother and child. Smoking in pregnancy is mainly observed among mothers with a low education level and those aged under 23. According to the Baker's Foetal Origins of Adult Health and Diseases Hypothesis, exposure of the foetus to the components of tobacco smoke results in many perturbations in the form of a lower birth weight, prematurity, worse state of neonates after birth, and higher susceptibility to contacting civilization diseases at the age of adulthood. The results of studies confirm some observations. Polish studies clearly confirmed a lower birth weight of babies delivered by mothers who smoke; however, earlier termination of pregnancy and worse status of neonates after birth were not observed. According to the Baker's hypothesis, a lower birth weight of babies delivered by smoking mothers during the further life cycle exposes the offspring to the risk of contracting civilization diseases. The efforts undertaken by public health authorities should be biased towards education of the population at reproductive age about the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the foetus and the offspring born. Women at reproductive age should be encouraged to discontinue smoking in association with the planning of pregnancy and in pregnancy. Source

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