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Macedo H.S.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Vivacqua M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rodrigues H.C.L.,Programa das Nacoes Unidas para o Desenvolvimento PNUD | Gerhardinger L.C.,University of Campinas
Marine Policy | Year: 2013

This is a governance analysis of a large coastal-marine protected area encompassing over 156,000. ha and including nine coastal cities in south Brazil - Baleia Franca Environmental Protection Area (BFEPA). While the governance focus of BFEPA has been on participative incentives, progress has been challenging given the enormous size of the area protected and because more bottom-up processes continuously clash with top-down higher-level decisions in the country. It is argued that while current interpretative incentives should be maintained and strengthened, economic and legal incentives should be where more substantial progress has to be made. While major expectation for innovation and change is currently placed in the on-going formulation of a participative Management Plan, entrenched views on development, planning and governing must be challenged. This is not an easy task considering it opposes the prevailing economic development rationale in Brazil. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Guy C.,University of Toronto | Cassano C.R.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Cazarre L.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | de Vleeschouwer K.M.,Center for Research and Conservation | And 9 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2016

In southern Bahia, Brazil, rapid deforestation of the Atlantic Forest threatens a variety of endemic wildlife, including the Endangered golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT; Leontopithecus chrysomelas) and the Near Threatened Wied’s black-tufted-ear marmoset (Wied’s marmoset; Callithrix kuhlii). Identifying high quality areas in the landscape is critical for mounting efficient conservation programs for these primates. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for GHLTs and Wied’s marmosets using the presence-only algorithm Maxent to (1) locate suitable areas for each species, (2) examine the overlap in these areas, and (3) determine the amount of suitable habitat in protected areas. Our models indicate that 36% (10, 659 km2) of the study area is suitable for GHLTs and 53% (15, 642 km2) for Wied’s marmosets. Suitable areas were strongly defined by presence of neighboring forest cover for both species, as well as annual temperature range for GHLTs and distance from urban areas for Wied’s marmosets. Thirty-three percent of the landscape (9,809 km2) is overlapping suitable habitat. Given that the focal species form mixed-species groups, these areas of shared suitability may be key locations for preserving this important behavioral interaction. Protected areas contained 6% (651 km2) of all suitable habitat for GHLTs and 4% (682 km2) for Wied’s marmosets. All protected areas were suitable for the focal species, excepting Serra do Conduru, which had low suitability for GHLTs. Our results highlight that suitable habitat for GHLTs and Wied’s marmosets is limited and largely unprotected. Conservation action to protect additional suitable areas will be critical for their persistence. © 2016, Mongaby.com e-journal. All rights reserved. Source

Klippel A.H.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Oliveira P.V.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Britto K.B.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Freire B.F.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. Copyright: © 2015 Klippel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Marini-Filho O.J.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Fernandes G.W.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2012

Insect galls are important nutrient sinks in the plant, ultimately affecting its reproductive success. We assessed the influence of a stem galler on the survival of plant shoots and whether these are able to concentrate nutrients in the gall's tissues; thus testing the nutrient sink hypothesis. We measured gall sizes and nutrient concentrations in a Brazilian Cerrado plant, Diplusodon orbicularis, and its Cecidomyiidae stem galler. Galls grew larger on thicker shoots. Also, these shoots suffered smaller mortality from gall attack, while thinner shoots were commonly associated with the death of the shoot distal to the gall. Apical shoots suffered higher mortality, while basal shoots suffered lower mortality and were proportionally less attacked. Galled tissues were more nutrient rich than non-galled tissues. The nutrients P, Ca, and Mg were more concentrated inside the galls when compared to tissues in non-galled stems. Gallers also seem to be able to reduce toxic Al concentration in the plant tissues, as Al occurred in smaller concentrations inside the galls than out of them. Although stem gallers feed on tissues of low nutritional value, these are in a favourable position to intercept flowing nutrients and water. The death of small galled shoots possibly is due to the lack of essential nutrients and energy drained, or water restriction in them. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Tardio B.M.R.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Da Silveira R.,Federal University of Amazonas
Austral Ecology | Year: 2015

Large mammals are vulnerable to extinction, and respond directly to ecological gradients within the forest and to the intensity of forest product use by humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of differences in forest structure and human occupation history on the composition of medium and large-sized mammal assemblages of the terra-firme forests of the Anavilhanas National Park, one of the most oligotrophic Amazonian ecosystems. Mammal surveys were conducted along 11 linear transects of 4km, six of which were located in areas once inhabited by people and managed until the year that the park was created (over 30 years ago), and five in areas that were not inhabited at that time. We detected 469 individuals of 26 species during diurnal and nocturnal sampling, and 11 additional species outside transects. Human occupation history was strongly related to forest structure components. Fruit biomass, canopy cover and tree size were strongly associated with uninhabited areas, and influenced the structure of mammal assemblages. A direct relationship between diet category and species size was observed. Large frugivore-herbivores and carnivores were more closely associated with areas with more fruit, larger trees and greater canopy cover. In contrast, small arboreal frugivore-omnivores associated more closely with open canopy and smaller trees. Our study indicated that the effects of human occupation history on forest structure are still evident three decades after the removal of local people from the park. This long-term effect can be explained by the low resilience of the Anavilhanas environments, demonstrating the fragility of mammal assemblages in face of anthropogenic variation in forest structure in the oligotrophic ecosystems of the Negro River basin. © 2015 The Authors. Austral Ecology © 2015 Ecological Society of Australia. Source

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