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do Nascimento N.F.,São Paulo State University | do Nascimento N.F.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Pereira-Santos M.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Piva L.H.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | And 5 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth, carcass yield, fatty acid composition, and reproductive parameters of diploid and triploid Astyanax altiparanae. Triploidization was induced by heat shock (40 °C for 2 min) 2 min after fertilization. Fish were reared for 175 days from fertilization. Triploid females showed lower proportion of saturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acids and higher amount of mono-unsaturated fatty acids than diploids. They were sterile, with immature gonads, and showed higher carcass yield than diploid females, which exhibited higher gonadosomatic indices. Triploid and diploid males showed similar gonad morphology, although diploid males produced greater numbers of spermatozoa. All males exhibited the secondary sex characteristic of spines in the pelvic and anal fins. Fatty acid composition and growth were similar in triploid and diploid males. Triploidy did not ensure sterility in males, but triploid females were sterile and had increased carcass yield, and may be used in aquaculture to increase the production of A. altiparanae. Statement of relevance To our knowledge, this is the first study addressing the effect of triploid induction on growth parameters of a neotropical species. The important results for carcass yield and sterility in female triploid will improve the production of A. altiparane, as this species is being used as live-bait for sport fishing and direct consumption. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Tardio B.M.R.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Da Silveira R.,Federal University of Amazonas
Austral Ecology | Year: 2015

Large mammals are vulnerable to extinction, and respond directly to ecological gradients within the forest and to the intensity of forest product use by humans. In this study, we evaluated the effects of differences in forest structure and human occupation history on the composition of medium and large-sized mammal assemblages of the terra-firme forests of the Anavilhanas National Park, one of the most oligotrophic Amazonian ecosystems. Mammal surveys were conducted along 11 linear transects of 4km, six of which were located in areas once inhabited by people and managed until the year that the park was created (over 30 years ago), and five in areas that were not inhabited at that time. We detected 469 individuals of 26 species during diurnal and nocturnal sampling, and 11 additional species outside transects. Human occupation history was strongly related to forest structure components. Fruit biomass, canopy cover and tree size were strongly associated with uninhabited areas, and influenced the structure of mammal assemblages. A direct relationship between diet category and species size was observed. Large frugivore-herbivores and carnivores were more closely associated with areas with more fruit, larger trees and greater canopy cover. In contrast, small arboreal frugivore-omnivores associated more closely with open canopy and smaller trees. Our study indicated that the effects of human occupation history on forest structure are still evident three decades after the removal of local people from the park. This long-term effect can be explained by the low resilience of the Anavilhanas environments, demonstrating the fragility of mammal assemblages in face of anthropogenic variation in forest structure in the oligotrophic ecosystems of the Negro River basin. © 2015 The Authors. Austral Ecology © 2015 Ecological Society of Australia.


Klippel A.H.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Oliveira P.V.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Britto K.B.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Freire B.F.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Road mortality is the leading source of biodiversity loss in the world, especially due to fragmentation of natural habitats and loss of wildlife. The survey of the main species victims of roadkill is of fundamental importance for the better understanding of the problem, being necessary, for this, the correct species identification. The aim of this study was to verify if DNA barcodes can be applied to identify road-killed samples that often cannot be determined morphologically. For this purpose, 222 vertebrate samples were collected in a stretch of the BR-101 highway that crosses two Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Natural Reserves, the Sooretama Biological Reserve and the Vale Natural Reserve, in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The mitochondrial COI gene was amplified, sequenced and confronted with the BOLD database. It was possible to identify 62.16% of samples, totaling 62 different species, including Pyrrhura cruentata, Chaetomys subspinosus, Puma yagouaroundi and Leopardus wiedii considered Vulnerable in the National Official List of Species of Endangered Wildlife. The most commonly identified animals were a bat (Molossus molossus), an opossum (Didelphis aurita) and a frog (Trachycephalus mesophaeus) species. Only one reptile was identified using the technique, probably due to lack of reference sequences in BOLD. These data may contribute to a better understanding of the impact of roads on species biodiversity loss and to introduce the DNA barcode technique to road ecology scenarios. Copyright: © 2015 Klippel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Guy C.,University of Toronto | Cassano C.R.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | Cazarre L.,University Estadual Of Santa Cruz | de Vleeschouwer K.M.,Center for Research and Conservation | And 9 more authors.
Tropical Conservation Science | Year: 2016

In southern Bahia, Brazil, rapid deforestation of the Atlantic Forest threatens a variety of endemic wildlife, including the Endangered golden-headed lion tamarin (GHLT; Leontopithecus chrysomelas) and the Near Threatened Wied’s black-tufted-ear marmoset (Wied’s marmoset; Callithrix kuhlii). Identifying high quality areas in the landscape is critical for mounting efficient conservation programs for these primates. We constructed ecological niche models (ENMs) for GHLTs and Wied’s marmosets using the presence-only algorithm Maxent to (1) locate suitable areas for each species, (2) examine the overlap in these areas, and (3) determine the amount of suitable habitat in protected areas. Our models indicate that 36% (10, 659 km2) of the study area is suitable for GHLTs and 53% (15, 642 km2) for Wied’s marmosets. Suitable areas were strongly defined by presence of neighboring forest cover for both species, as well as annual temperature range for GHLTs and distance from urban areas for Wied’s marmosets. Thirty-three percent of the landscape (9,809 km2) is overlapping suitable habitat. Given that the focal species form mixed-species groups, these areas of shared suitability may be key locations for preserving this important behavioral interaction. Protected areas contained 6% (651 km2) of all suitable habitat for GHLTs and 4% (682 km2) for Wied’s marmosets. All protected areas were suitable for the focal species, excepting Serra do Conduru, which had low suitability for GHLTs. Our results highlight that suitable habitat for GHLTs and Wied’s marmosets is limited and largely unprotected. Conservation action to protect additional suitable areas will be critical for their persistence. © 2016, Mongaby.com e-journal. All rights reserved.


Macedo H.S.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Vivacqua M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Rodrigues H.C.L.,Programa das Nacoes Unidas para o Desenvolvimento PNUD | Gerhardinger L.C.,University of Campinas
Marine Policy | Year: 2013

This is a governance analysis of a large coastal-marine protected area encompassing over 156,000. ha and including nine coastal cities in south Brazil - Baleia Franca Environmental Protection Area (BFEPA). While the governance focus of BFEPA has been on participative incentives, progress has been challenging given the enormous size of the area protected and because more bottom-up processes continuously clash with top-down higher-level decisions in the country. It is argued that while current interpretative incentives should be maintained and strengthened, economic and legal incentives should be where more substantial progress has to be made. While major expectation for innovation and change is currently placed in the on-going formulation of a participative Management Plan, entrenched views on development, planning and governing must be challenged. This is not an easy task considering it opposes the prevailing economic development rationale in Brazil. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


dos Santos M.P.,São Paulo State University | Yasui G.S.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Xavier P.L.P.,University of Sao Paulo | de Macedo Adamov N.S.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | And 4 more authors.
Zygote | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of gametes, post-fertilization events and subsequent temperature effects on the early developmental stages of the neotropical species Astyanax altiparanae. The sperm of this species presents a typical morphology of teleost sperm with a spherical head (diameter = 1.88 µm), midpiece (diameter = 0.75 µm) and a single flagellum (length = 18.67 µm). The extrusion of the second polar body and fusion of male and female pronucleus were reported for the first time in this species. Additionally, we observed the formation of the fertilization cone, which prevents polyspermic fertilization. Developmental stages at 22°C, 26°C and 30°C gave rise to fertilization rates at 91.12, 91.42 and 93.04% respectively. Hatching occurred at 25 hpf at 22°C, 16 hpf at 26°C and 11 hpf at 30°C and the hatching rates were 61.78%, 62.90% and 59.45%, respectively. At 22°C, the second polar body was extruded at ≈6 mpf and the male and female pronucleus fused at ≈10 mpf. This fundamental information is important for the field and opens up new possibilities in fish biotechnology, including micromanipulation and chromosome-set manipulation. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016


Marini-Filho O.J.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Fernandes G.W.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Arthropod-Plant Interactions | Year: 2012

Insect galls are important nutrient sinks in the plant, ultimately affecting its reproductive success. We assessed the influence of a stem galler on the survival of plant shoots and whether these are able to concentrate nutrients in the gall's tissues; thus testing the nutrient sink hypothesis. We measured gall sizes and nutrient concentrations in a Brazilian Cerrado plant, Diplusodon orbicularis, and its Cecidomyiidae stem galler. Galls grew larger on thicker shoots. Also, these shoots suffered smaller mortality from gall attack, while thinner shoots were commonly associated with the death of the shoot distal to the gall. Apical shoots suffered higher mortality, while basal shoots suffered lower mortality and were proportionally less attacked. Galled tissues were more nutrient rich than non-galled tissues. The nutrients P, Ca, and Mg were more concentrated inside the galls when compared to tissues in non-galled stems. Gallers also seem to be able to reduce toxic Al concentration in the plant tissues, as Al occurred in smaller concentrations inside the galls than out of them. Although stem gallers feed on tissues of low nutritional value, these are in a favourable position to intercept flowing nutrients and water. The death of small galled shoots possibly is due to the lack of essential nutrients and energy drained, or water restriction in them. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Yasui G.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Senhorini J.A.,Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation | Shimoda E.,Cândido Mendes University | Pereira-Santos M.,São Paulo State University | And 4 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2014

In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel® [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) - mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1±4.0%) or Ovopel® (79.5±5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6±27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4±7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1±26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5°C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15°C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization. © 2014 The Animal Consortium.


PubMed | Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, São Paulo State University, University of Sao Paulo and Hokkaido University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zygote (Cambridge, England) | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to describe the morphology of gametes, post-fertilization events and subsequent temperature effects on the early developmental stages of the neotropical species Astyanax altiparanae. The sperm of this species presents a typical morphology of teleost sperm with a spherical head (diameter = 1.88 m), midpiece (diameter = 0.75 m) and a single flagellum (length = 18.67 m). The extrusion of the second polar body and fusion of male and female pronucleus were reported for the first time in this species. Additionally, we observed the formation of the fertilization cone, which prevents polyspermic fertilization. Developmental stages at 22C, 26C and 30C gave rise to fertilization rates at 91.12, 91.42 and 93.04% respectively. Hatching occurred at 25 hpf at 22C, 16 hpf at 26C and 11 hpf at 30C and the hatching rates were 61.78%, 62.90% and 59.45%, respectively. At 22C, the second polar body was extruded at 6 mpf and the male and female pronucleus fused at 10 mpf. This fundamental information is important for the field and opens up new possibilities in fish biotechnology, including micromanipulation and chromosome-set manipulation.


PubMed | Cândido Mendes University, Juarez Autonomous University of Tabasco, Chico Mendes Institute of Biodiversity Conservation, São Paulo State University and 2 more.
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience | Year: 2015

In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) - mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1 4.0%) or Ovopel (79.5 5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6 27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4 7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1 26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization.

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