Van Duzor A.G.,Chicago State University
Journal of Science Education and Technology | Year: 2011
Of primary concern in professional development (PD) are the ways in which teachers transfer knowledge from PD to the classroom. This qualitative case study of a chemistry PD course for elementary teachers investigates the first step in the transfer process by examining why and how K-8 teachers consider transfer to the classroom. Motivations for considering transfer were the same whether teachers only proposed how they could use PD content or teachers actively utilized PD experiments and concepts in their own classrooms. Teacher learning of chemistry concepts, activities, and pedagogical strategies were motivating factors for considering transfer. Teachers appropriated and adapted PD materials based on the specific learning needs of their own students, the constraints of their teaching contexts, and their desired outcomes, including making science learning relevant for students. Understanding teachers' motivations and means of adaptations in considering PD can inform PD provider programs how to be more effective and responsive to teacher needs. Furthermore, teachers' active consideration of appropriations and adaptations highlights how teachers leverage their expertise in shaping their PD experiences. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source
Yousefipour Z.,Texas Southern University |
Newaz M.,Chicago State University
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica | Year: 2014
Aim: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors that regulate numerous genes influencing blood pressure. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of clofibrate, a PPARα ligand, on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods:Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), 8-9 weeks old, were randomly allocated into groups treated with vehicle or clofibrate (250 mg·kg -1 ·d -1, ip for 21 d). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured before and after the study period using tail-cuff plethysmography. Rats were sacrificed under anesthesia and blood, urine and tissue samples were processed for subsequent analysis. Results: SHR rats showed significantly higher SBP compared with WKY rats (198±6 mmHg vs 93±7 mmHg), and a 3-fold increase in urinary protein excretion. Clofibrate treatment reduced SBP by 26%±2% and proteinuria by 43%±9% in SHR but not in WKY rats. The urinary nitrite/nitrate excretion in SHR rats was nearly 2-fold greater than that in WKY, and was further increased by 30%±4% and 48%±3%, respectively, following clofibrate treatment. In addition, PPARα protein expression and PPARα activity were significantly lower in SHR than that in WKY rats. Clofibrate treatment significantly increased PPARα protein expression and PPARα activity in SHR rats, but not in WKY rats. Moreover, the vasoconstrictor response of aortic ring was markedly increased in SHRs, which was blunted after clofibrate treatment. Conclusion: PPARα contributes to regulation of blood pressure and vascular reactivity in SHR, and clofibrate-mediated reduction in blood pressure and proteinuria is probably through increased NO production. © 2014 CPS and SIMM. Source
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: IUSE | Award Amount: 159.88K | Year: 2015
This project is facilitating the growing use of STEM Learning Assistants in STEM departments in institutions of higher education and improving implementations of this approach. Learning Assistants (LAs) are talented highly-trained STEM undergraduates who are hired by university and two-year college STEM instructors to help transform courses to evidence-based approaches and assist enrolled students to get the full impact of active learning methods. The Learning Assistant model has spread rapidly into practice in the last few years. In response to growing use and requests for assistance, the team that created the LA model has recently developed an international Learning Assistant Alliance - a collaborative network of 88 institutions that use Learning Assistants to catalyze education transformation in mathematics, science, and engineering courses. Members of the LA Alliance also engage in collaborative research with peer institutions interested in developing and using improved outcome measures. Project resources are supporting the development and implementation of a web-based process for disseminating research-based LA instructional practices, including a database to provide resources and information for new users that will contribute to the efficient implementation of the LA model. Project resources are also supporting a large-scale research study of the learning outcomes and retention of over 50,000 undergraduates who have enrolled in courses using the LA model. With the initial support provided in this award, the LA Alliance is developing a governing structure and a plan for sustainable funding in years beyond the grant.
The Learning Assistant model is a model for social and structural organization in undergraduate STEM education that is related to and builds on the work of Peter Senge on learning organizations and on the work of Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger on communities of practice. It is an approach to supporting the growing use of evidence-based instructional strategies. However, it is not a specific instructional strategy but rather a method of training and using advanced undergraduate students as course assistants and liaisons between instructors and students enrolled in a STEM course. Built into the model is the baseline expectation that participating institutions are working to bring about change in the way undergraduate courses are taught and to study the effectiveness of these changes.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: MAJOR RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATION | Award Amount: 178.11K | Year: 2016
One of the four key recommendations of the Nuclear Science Advisory Committees 2015 Long Range Plan (LRP) included increasing investment in small-scale and mid-scale projects and initiatives that enable forefront research at universities and laboratories. The LRP also encourages education and workforce development as well as research and development into state-of-the-art tools and techniques for nuclear science. This project, the development of a particle physics detector at Chicago State University and California Polytechnic State University, will enable the transfer of knowledge from an international collaboration of world-class physicists and engineers at Europes Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to our universities. This will provide unique opportunities to train undergraduate students in electronics, detection techniques, laser technology, data analysis, and instrumentation interface.
The Fast Interaction Trigger Detector (FIT) proposed here is an instrument that meets specific requirements as the Minimum Bias trigger for one of the particle detector systems (called ALICE) at the LHC: (a) The capability to discriminate beam-beam interactions with a 99% efficiency for the collisions generated by the LHC at a rate of 50 kHz for Pb-Pb collisions and a rate of 200 kHz for p-p and p-Pb collisions. (b) The capability to provide a start signal for the rest of the ALICE detectors (Level 0 trigger) with a time resolution better than 30 ps. In addition to these design parameters, the FIT detector will provide the following measurements: (a) Charged particle multiplicity (b) Interaction reaction plane (c) First measurement of the collision vertex position. FIT will also be the key detector to provide direct feedback to the LHC. It will be the first of the ALICE detectors to be turned on to perform beam tuning and monitor online luminosity. These characteristics, not available in any instrument provided by a vendor, require the development of a unique instrument at the vanguard of trigger detectors for high energy nuclear and particle physics.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: NUCLEAR STRUCTURE & REACTIONS | Award Amount: 90.00K | Year: 2014
A major benefit to undergraduate students pursuing careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) disciplines, is the opportunity to experience first-hand the application of technology and scientific techniques in real world settings. This project is part of a research program that studies heavy ion collisions within A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The primary goal is to provide students with research experiences that stimulate an interest in science and technology, exposes them to techniques used in experimental high energy physics, allows the development of global relationships and prepares them for careers in science and technology. The project on which the students will work has a focus centered on understanding the behavior of extremely dense matter, similar to that existing a fraction of a second after the Big Bang. This is achieved by colliding atomic nuclei at very high energies and studying the remnants of these collisions using highly sophisticated detectors. The students involved in this project will analyze the resulting sub-atomic particles generated by these collisions, and will contribute to the design of new detectors that will enable even more sensitive experiments in the future.
As stated earlier, the focus of ALICE at CERN is to understand the behavior of matter at very high density, similar to the matter that existed a fraction a second after the Big Bang. This state of matter, consisting of a very hot and dense medium of quarks and gluons, is often referred to as a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). By colliding nuclei at very high energies it is possible to create a QGP in a controlled environment that facilitates the study of its properties. Chicago State University (CSU) students will investigate the flavor characteristics, specifically strangeness, of jets resulting from high-energy proton-proton and lead-lead collisions and their use as probes in the study of QGP formation. In addition, CSU students will be involved in a research and development program devoted to the upgrade of ALICE sub-detectors, thereby participating in the hardware development of important components in the ALICE experiment.
Collaboration with a large international laboratory such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN allows students to work with world-class scientists and state of the art technology, thus preparing them for STEM careers. Additionally, a program such as this has the potential of creating a cadre of students who become ambassadors for STEM; students who demonstrate to their peers the benefits of pursuing careers in science, engineering, math and technology. Also, students who participate in this program may serve as mentors and role models for students of high school age and younger, thereby, contributing to the creation of a pipeline of students actively preparing for careers in STEM.