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Takai T.,Task Force for House Dust Mite Allergen Standardization | Takai T.,Juntendo University | Okamoto Y.,Task Force for House Dust Mite Allergen Standardization | Okamoto Y.,Chiba UniversityChiba | And 13 more authors.
Allergology International | Year: 2015

Abstract Background In the 1990s, the Japanese Society of Allergology (JSA) standardized Japanese cedar pollen allergen vaccines. In the present study, the task force for house dust mite (HDM) allergen standardization of the Committee for Allergens and Immunotherapy of JSA reports the standardization of HDM allergen vaccines in Japan. Methods In vivo allergenic potency was determined by intradermal testing of 51 Japanese adults with positive serum specific IgE to HDM allergens. In vitro total IgE binding potency was analyzed by competition ELISA using a pooled serum, with sera obtained from 10 allergic patients. The amounts of HDM group 1 (Der 1) and group 2 major allergens in eight HDM allergen extracts were measured by sandwich ELISAs. Correlation between the in vitro total IgE binding potency and major allergen levels was analyzed. Results We selected a JSA reference HDM extract and determined its in vivo allergenic potency. The in vitro total IgE binding potency significantly correlated with Der 1 content, group 2 allergen content, and their combined amount, indicating that measurement of major allergen contents can be used as a surrogate in vitro assay. Conclusions The task force determined the in vivo allergenic potency (100,000 JAU/ml) and Der 1 content (38.5 μg/ml) of the JSA reference HDM extract, selected the measurement of Der 1 content as the surrogate in vitro assay, and decided that manufacturers can label a HDM allergen extract as having a titer of 100,000 JAU/ml if it contains 22.2-66.7 μg/ml of Der 1. © 2015 Japanese Society of Allergology. Source


Ebisawa M.,Clinical Research Center for Allergology and Rheumatology | Ito K.,Aichi Childrens Health and Medical CenterAichi | Aihara Y.,Aihara Allergy and Pediatric ClinicKanagawa | Ito S.,Doshisha Womens College of Liberal Arts | And 24 more authors.
Allergology International | Year: 2014

A food allergy is defined as “a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food.” Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate food allergy). The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis. © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Source


Yamamoto T.,Kanagawa Dental University | Fuchida S.,Kanagawa Dental University | Aida J.,Tohoku University | Kondo K.,Chiba UniversityChiba | And 2 more authors.
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2015

Health Japan 21 plan establishes specific targets for aspects of health including oral health for 2010, in an effort to increase health expectancy. Despite this, there has been insufficient improvement in oral health status in adults. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with effective oral health programs for adults in Japanese municipalities. Questionnaires were mailed to all 1,472 municipalities in Japan and responses were obtained from 862 municipalities (response rate: 58.6%). After excluding 71 municipalities with “unknown” answer, no answer, or lack of relevant information, we analyzed the data from the remaining 791 municipalities with or without oral health programs for adults selfreported as effective within three years. Multilevel Poisson regression models were used to examine the associations of effective programs with oral health personnel, contact with related agencies, the establishment of Health Japan 21 goals, financial status, the density of dentists and population density at the municipality level, and having oral health personnel at the prefecture level. Three hundred and fifty-four municipalities reported having effective programs. In the fully adjusted model, having dental hygienists in the municipal office (P < 0.05) and a high number of contacts with related agencies (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with having effective programs. These results suggest that having dental hygienists and contact with related agencies such as residents, local dental associations, companies, community general support centers, or medical, nursing or welfare facilities are promoting factors for effective adult oral health programs in Japanese municipalities. © 2015 Tohoku University Medical Press. Source


Inagaki F.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Hinrichs K.-U.,University of Bremen | Kubo Y.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Bowles M.W.,University of Bremen | And 50 more authors.
Science | Year: 2015

Microbial life inhabits deeply buried marine sediments, but the extent of this vast ecosystem remains poorly constrained. Here we provide evidence for the existence of microbial communities in ∼40° to 60°C sediment associated with lignite coal beds at ∼1.5 to 2.5 km below the seafloor in the Pacific Ocean off Japan. Microbial methanogenesis was indicated by the isotopic compositions of methane and carbon dioxide, biomarkers, cultivation data, and gas compositions. Concentrations of indigenous microbial cells below 1.5 km ranged from <10 to ∼104 cells cm-3. Peak concentrations occurred in lignite layers, where communities differed markedly from shallower subseafloor communities and instead resembled organotrophic communities in forest soils. This suggests that terrigenous sediments retain indigenous community members tens of millions of years after burial in the seabed. Source


Inage T.,Chiba UniversityChiba | Nakajima T.,Chiba UniversityChiba | Yoshino I.,Chiba UniversityChiba
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy | Year: 2014

Accurate staging is the first step in the management of lung cancer. Nodal staging is quite important for physicians to be able to judge the primary operability of patients harboring no distant metastasis. For many years, mediastinoscopy has been considered a “gold standard” modality for nodal staging. Mediastinoscopy is known to be a highly sensitive procedure for mediastinal staging and has been performed worldwide, but is invasive. Because of this, clinicians have sought a less invasive modality for nodal staging. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a minimally invasive modality for diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. EBUS-TBNA is a needle biopsy procedure that has accessibility compatible with the reach of the convex-probe EBUS scope, so N1 nodes are also assessable. The diagnostic yield is similar to that of mediastinoscopy, and the core obtained by the dedicated needle biopsy can be used for histological assessment to determine the subtypes of lung cancer. The samples can also be used to test for various biomarkers using immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction for DNA/complementary DNA, and in situ hybridization, and the technique is useful for selecting candidates for specific molecular-targeted therapeutic agents. According to the newly published American College of Chest Physicians guideline, EBUS-TBNA is now considered "the best first test" for nodal staging in patients with radiologically suspicious nodes. Appropriate training and thorough clinical experience is required to be able to perform correct nodal staging using this procedure. © 2014 Inage et al. Source

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