Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center

Yachimata, Japan

Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center

Yachimata, Japan

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Sugino T.,Hiroshima University | Tateno A.,Tochigi Prefectural Livestock and Dairy Experimental Center | Ueno G.,Tochigi Prefectural Livestock and Dairy Experimental Center | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

To elucidate the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on milk production and plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations in early lactating dairy cows, 10 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups after parturition. One group was fed a diet supplemented with calcium salts of MCFA (MCFA-Ca) for 8 weeks after parturition, while the other group was fed the same diet without the supplement (control). MCFA-Ca, containing 60% caprylic acid and 40% capric acid, was added to a total mixed ration (TMR) at 1.5% of the dietary dry matter (DM). Cows were offered the TMR ad libitum. DM intake, daily gain in bodyweight, milk yield, milk fat content and milk protein content did not differ between the two treatment groups. The MCFA-Ca diet decreased plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.05), while plasma concentrations of total and free cholesterols tended to increase (P < 0.10). Plasma ghrelin was maintained at a higher concentration (P < 0.05) in cows fed the MCFA-Ca diet than in the control group. Relative to the control diet, the MCFA-Ca diet decreased plasma insulin concentration (P < 0.05) and numerically increased plasma glucagon concentration, resulting in a lower insulin:glucagon ratio (P < 0.05). In conclusion, plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were affected by the MCFA-Ca diet, suggesting that MCFA-Ca supplementation may change endocrine functions and nutrient metabolism in early lactating cows, ultimately resulting in an enhanced catabolic state. © CSIRO 2014.


PubMed | The National Federation of Dairy Cooperative Associations ZENRAKUREN, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center, Gunma Prefectural Livestock Experiment Station, Hiroshima University and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

The present study aimed to determine the effects of differing nutrient levels during the far-off period on postpartum metabolism and milk production in lactating cows. Twenty-six multiparous cows were assigned to three dietary treatments in the far-off period: a low-energy diet (L, n=9, 80% intake of the total digestible nutrients requirement), a moderate-energy diet (M, n=8, 105%) and a high-energy diet (H, n=9, 130%). During the close-up period, all cows were provided with 105% intake. After parturition, all cows were fed a lactation diet. The BCS recovery was slow, and low milk yield was found in the H group. In the L group, BCS recovery was favorable after parturition, and lactation persistence was increased. The L group had low rumen endotoxin activity and a high initial ovulation rate after parturition. These findings indicate that a high-energy diet during the far-off period has a deleterious effect on milk production. In contrast, the restricted diet in the far-off period increased adaptability with respect to peri-parturition metabolic changes, improved the post-parturition nutritional state, and increased milk production. Furthermore, it suggests that the nutrient levels in the far-off period affect rumen endotoxin activity and reproductive function after parturition.


Muneta Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Minagawa Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Nakane T.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Shibahara T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Stress | Year: 2011

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has recently been considered a promising marker of stress responses. In this study, to evaluate IL-18 as a noninvasive stress marker in pigs, we investigated the expression of IL-18 in porcine salivary glands and its presence in saliva, and its dynamics during acute immobilization stress in pigs. IL-18 mRNA was detected robustly in the pig salivary glands by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical staining of IL-18 protein expression revealed that the expression patterns differed among the three types of salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual gland). IL-18 was also detected in pig saliva by ELISA, and a diurnal rhythm with a peak in the afternoon was observed. The IL-18 concentration in saliva was significantly increased during a 60-min acute immobilization stress in thirteen 5-month-old pigs. These results are the first evidence of a stress-related change of IL-18 in pig saliva. Salivary IL-18 may thus become a useful noninvasive marker for the evaluation of acute stress in pigs. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Okumura N.,STAFF Institute | Hayashi T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Uenishi H.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Fukudome N.,Osumi Regional Promotion Bureau Agriculture | And 8 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2010

Herein, we report the variability among 57 porcine homologs of murine coat colour-related genes. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (InDels) within 44 expressed gene sequences by aligning eight pig complementary DNA (cDNA) samples. The sequence alignment revealed a total of 485 SNPs and 15 InDels. The polymorphisms were then validated by performing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with reference DNA samples obtained from 384 porcine individuals. Of the 384 individuals, three parents of the experimental F2 family were included to detect polymorphisms between them for linkage mapping. We also genotyped previously reported polymorphisms of 12 genes, and one SNP each in three genes that were detected by performing a BLAST search of the Trace database. A total of 211 SNPs and three InDels were successfully genotyped from our porcine DNA panel. We detected SNPs in 33 of the 44 genes among the parents of an experimental F2 family and then constructed a linkage map of the 33 genes for this family. The linkage assignment of each gene to the porcine chromosomes was consistent with the location of the BAC clone in the porcine genome and the corresponding gene sequence. We confirmed complete substitutions of EDNRB and MLPH in the Jinhua and Clawn miniature breeds, respectively. Furthermore, we identified polymorphic alleles exclusive to each pig group: 13 for Jinhua, two for Duroc, three for Meishan, four for the Japanese wild boar, one for the Clawn miniature pig and four for the Potbelly pig. © 2009 The Authors.


Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Akiyama K.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | Hashimura S.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | And 8 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016

To determine changes in reticular pH during the pre- and postpartum periods, when subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) frequently occurs, we monitored pH in dairy cows up to 12 weeks postpartum using a radio transmission pH sensing system. We designated seven pregnant multiparous Holstein cows for continuous pH monitoring (pH monitoring test), resulting in successful data acquisition for reticular pH. We subsequently evaluated the cows to determine whether active dry yeast supplementation of their feed was effective for SARA prevention (yeast supplementation test). Twenty- nine pregnant cows were allocated to two groups (control [CON, n = 15] and yeast- supplemented [YEA, n = 14]) and fed a mixed ration optimized for dry prepartum cows and a mixed ration that consisted mainly of timothy hay and a commercial concentrate. The feed of the YEA group was supplemented with 10 g/day of commercial active yeast product for three weeks prepartum and twelve weeks postpartum. In the latter test, six cows in each group were selected for reticular pH recording using the pH monitoring system. The pH profiles in the pH monitoring test were relatively high compared to those in the yeast supplementation test throughout the testing period, probably due to differences in starch and fiber levels between experiments despite their identical formula design. Notably, regardless of yeast supplementation, 11 of 12 cows in the latter test exhibited similar trends of pH maintenance (6.5 < pH < 6.8) or gradual decrease during the dry period, whereas average daily reticular pH decreased dramatically after calving. Supplementing the diet of dairy cows with yeast during the transition period provided no significant change in the health and performance measurements of the animals. We demonstrated the application of a radio transmission pH sensing system for assessment and monitoring of the ruminal pH of cows in the transition period. Furthermore, our results imply that SARA incidence in the transition and early- to mid-lactation periods may be attributable to a reticuloruminal pH decrease during the dry period, which is difficult to overcome by means of yeast supplementation during the transition period. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Shinshu University, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center, Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center, University of Tsukuba and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate:propionate ratio were changed (P<0.05) in both groups during the peripartum period, whereas butyrate and acetate:butyrate ratio were only altered in the HY group. Blood cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in the HY group were higher (P<0.01) than those in the LY group. Principal component analysis revealed that milk yield and milk compositions were differently clustered between groups. These parameters showed similar direction with dry matter intake in the HY group and adverse direction in the LY group. Linear regression analysis indicated that butyrate was positively correlated with BHBA (P<0.05) in the HY group. This study suggests that cows in the HY group seem to accommodate appropriately to negative energy balance in early lactation through rumen fermentation.


Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Uyeno Y.,National Federation of Dairy Co operative Associations | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The effects of oral administration of a prebiotic (cellooligosaccharide [CE]) and a combination of a probiotic (a commercial Clostridium butyricum strain) and prebiotics (referred to as symbiotics [SB]) on performance and intestinal ecology in Holstein calves fed milk replacer (MR) or whole milk were evaluated. Forty female calves (experiment 1) and 14 male and female calves (experiment 2) were used in this study. Calves were fed MR (experiment 1) or whole milk (experiment 2) necessary for daily weight gain of 0.3kg based on birth weight in two daily feedings and weaned at 46 days. Calves were divided into a CE feeding group, SB feeding group (only in experiment 1), and control group. The CE and SB groups were fed CE at 5g/day before weaning and 10g/day postweaning. Only the SB group received 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum culture per day. Commercial calf starter was offered for ad libitum intake. Health and feed intake of the animals were monitored daily, and body weight was measured weekly. Fecal samples were analyzed for determination of bacterial community composition by an RNA-based method (sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method) and for organic acid profiling. In 49-day experiments, feed intake, daily gain, and occurrence of diarrhea of the calves were unaffected by either CE supplementation or SB supplementation, and all calves were healthy during each experiment. The fecal bacterial community compositions and the organic acid profiles were not different among groups in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the level of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group was higher in the feces of CE group than controls at 4 weeks of age and fecal butyric acid concentration was higher (8.0 vs. 12.2 [mmol/kg feces], P<0.05) at that time. There were no differences in prebiotic bacteria (the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) between groups at this time point. These results suggested that CE and C. butyricum supplementation have less effect on the performance of healthy calves fed MR. However, prebiotic supplementation seems effective for modulation of the intestinal bacterial community of calves when administered with whole milk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Hasunuma T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Nakayama H.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134 T (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n=16), SB feeding group (n=18), and control group (n=18). Body weight at 90days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90days of age were greater (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P<0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


PubMed | Shinshu University, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center, Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center, Ibaraki Prefectural Livestock Research Center and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

The effects of supplementing feed of cows in mid-to-late lactation with an active yeast product (Actisaf Sc 47) were evaluated using 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 33 Latin square design. The animals were fed a mixed ration with 33% neutral detergent fiber, consisting of timothy hay (29.8%), a commercial concentrate (70.0%) and commercial calcium triphosphate (0.2%), twice daily to meet 105% of their energy requirement. Yeast supplement was set at 0, 5 and 10g per day over 21-day periods, each of which consisted of 14days for adaptation followed by 7days of data collection. Milking performance, plasma metabolite parameters, rumen volatile fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and microbial properties were measured. Although there were no significant differences in feeding and milking performance or blood parameters associated with supplementation, the acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen fluid tended to decrease (P=0.08). The population of Bacteroidetes tended to be less prominent (P=0.07) and the fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter significantly increased (P<0.05) in the rumen fluid of the yeast 10g group compared with that of the control. These data suggest that effects of supplementing live yeast to cows in mid-to-late lactation may be limited to microbial composition and fermentation characteristics in the rumen.


PubMed | Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center and Nihon University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate the nutritive values of two peanut by-products, nonstandardized whole peanuts and peanut skins, along with their effects on microbial growth and fermentation in the rumen, their roughage values, and their antioxidative activities by a digestion trial using four goats. The experimental rations were alfalfa haycube (basal ration), 85% alfalfa with 15% whole peanuts, and 70% alfalfa with 15% whole peanuts and 15% peanut skins. The ether extracts and crude protein in whole peanuts were 47% and 27% on a dry matter basis (DM) both with over 90% of digestibilities, resulting in total digestive nutrients (TDN) of 140%. Peanut skins also had a high energy value with 91% of TDN. Ruminal concentrations of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and acetic acid decreased in the rations containing the peanut by-products, but the NDF digestibility and ruminal microbial protein estimated from urinary purines was not altered by feeding the peanut by-products. Plasma oxidative stress maker, malondialdehyde, tended to be lower when peanut skins were supplemented. Whole peanuts and peanut skins could be used as high-energy and high-protein diets for ruminants, and peanut skins would be expected as a feed having antioxidant functions.

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