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Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Uyeno Y.,National Federation of Dairy Co operative Associations | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The effects of oral administration of a prebiotic (cellooligosaccharide [CE]) and a combination of a probiotic (a commercial Clostridium butyricum strain) and prebiotics (referred to as symbiotics [SB]) on performance and intestinal ecology in Holstein calves fed milk replacer (MR) or whole milk were evaluated. Forty female calves (experiment 1) and 14 male and female calves (experiment 2) were used in this study. Calves were fed MR (experiment 1) or whole milk (experiment 2) necessary for daily weight gain of 0.3kg based on birth weight in two daily feedings and weaned at 46 days. Calves were divided into a CE feeding group, SB feeding group (only in experiment 1), and control group. The CE and SB groups were fed CE at 5g/day before weaning and 10g/day postweaning. Only the SB group received 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum culture per day. Commercial calf starter was offered for ad libitum intake. Health and feed intake of the animals were monitored daily, and body weight was measured weekly. Fecal samples were analyzed for determination of bacterial community composition by an RNA-based method (sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method) and for organic acid profiling. In 49-day experiments, feed intake, daily gain, and occurrence of diarrhea of the calves were unaffected by either CE supplementation or SB supplementation, and all calves were healthy during each experiment. The fecal bacterial community compositions and the organic acid profiles were not different among groups in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the level of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group was higher in the feces of CE group than controls at 4 weeks of age and fecal butyric acid concentration was higher (8.0 vs. 12.2 [mmol/kg feces], P<0.05) at that time. There were no differences in prebiotic bacteria (the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) between groups at this time point. These results suggested that CE and C. butyricum supplementation have less effect on the performance of healthy calves fed MR. However, prebiotic supplementation seems effective for modulation of the intestinal bacterial community of calves when administered with whole milk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Hasunuma T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Nakayama H.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134 T (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n=16), SB feeding group (n=18), and control group (n=18). Body weight at 90days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90days of age were greater (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P<0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Ishii T.,Ibaraki Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Ishii T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Oribe H.,University of Tsukuba | And 10 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

To decrease the age at first calving in Holsteins, the effects of average daily body weight gain (ADG) and crude protein (CP) level until first insemination on growth performance and milk production were examined. The MM group had a target ADG of 0.75kg and received a diet with a CP level of 14%. The HM and HH groups had a target ADG of 1kg; both these groups received a diet with CP levels 14% and 16%, respectively. The ADG in the HM and HH groups was 1.1kg, whereas in the MM group it was 0.97kg (P<0.01). The HM and HH groups showed no differences in withers height at body weight 350kg. The ages at first calving in MM, HM and HH groups were 23.1, 21.0 and 21.8months, respectively. The HM and HH groups had lower milk yield at day 305 than the MM group (P<0.01). These results suggest that growth performance until first insemination should be maintained at an ADG of 0.97kg or less with a CP level of approximately 14%, to shorten time until first insemination and prevent the decrease of milk yield. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Okumura N.,STAFF Institute | Hayashi T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Uenishi H.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Fukudome N.,Osumi Regional Promotion Bureau Agriculture | And 8 more authors.
Animal Genetics | Year: 2010

Herein, we report the variability among 57 porcine homologs of murine coat colour-related genes. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions/deletions (InDels) within 44 expressed gene sequences by aligning eight pig complementary DNA (cDNA) samples. The sequence alignment revealed a total of 485 SNPs and 15 InDels. The polymorphisms were then validated by performing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with reference DNA samples obtained from 384 porcine individuals. Of the 384 individuals, three parents of the experimental F2 family were included to detect polymorphisms between them for linkage mapping. We also genotyped previously reported polymorphisms of 12 genes, and one SNP each in three genes that were detected by performing a BLAST search of the Trace database. A total of 211 SNPs and three InDels were successfully genotyped from our porcine DNA panel. We detected SNPs in 33 of the 44 genes among the parents of an experimental F2 family and then constructed a linkage map of the 33 genes for this family. The linkage assignment of each gene to the porcine chromosomes was consistent with the location of the BAC clone in the porcine genome and the corresponding gene sequence. We confirmed complete substitutions of EDNRB and MLPH in the Jinhua and Clawn miniature breeds, respectively. Furthermore, we identified polymorphic alleles exclusive to each pig group: 13 for Jinhua, two for Duroc, three for Meishan, four for the Japanese wild boar, one for the Clawn miniature pig and four for the Potbelly pig. © 2009 The Authors. Source


Sugino T.,Hiroshima University | Tateno A.,Tochigi Prefectural Livestock and Dairy Experimental Center | Ueno G.,Tochigi Prefectural Livestock and Dairy Experimental Center | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | And 8 more authors.
Animal Production Science | Year: 2014

To elucidate the effects of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) on milk production and plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations in early lactating dairy cows, 10 multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two dietary treatment groups after parturition. One group was fed a diet supplemented with calcium salts of MCFA (MCFA-Ca) for 8 weeks after parturition, while the other group was fed the same diet without the supplement (control). MCFA-Ca, containing 60% caprylic acid and 40% capric acid, was added to a total mixed ration (TMR) at 1.5% of the dietary dry matter (DM). Cows were offered the TMR ad libitum. DM intake, daily gain in bodyweight, milk yield, milk fat content and milk protein content did not differ between the two treatment groups. The MCFA-Ca diet decreased plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.05), while plasma concentrations of total and free cholesterols tended to increase (P < 0.10). Plasma ghrelin was maintained at a higher concentration (P < 0.05) in cows fed the MCFA-Ca diet than in the control group. Relative to the control diet, the MCFA-Ca diet decreased plasma insulin concentration (P < 0.05) and numerically increased plasma glucagon concentration, resulting in a lower insulin:glucagon ratio (P < 0.05). In conclusion, plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were affected by the MCFA-Ca diet, suggesting that MCFA-Ca supplementation may change endocrine functions and nutrient metabolism in early lactating cows, ultimately resulting in an enhanced catabolic state. © CSIRO 2014. Source

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