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Tanabe N.,Niigata University | Iso H.,Osaka University | Okada K.,Ehime University | Nakamura Y.,Kyoto Womens University | And 4 more authors.
Circulation Journal | Year: 2010

Background: Few Japanese studies have compared serum non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol with serum total cholesterol as factors for predicting risk of cardiovascular events. Currently, few tools accurately estimate the probability of developing cardiovascular events for the Japanese general population. Methods and Results: A total of 22,430 Japanese men and women (aged 40-89 years) without a history of cardiovascular events from 10 community-based cohorts were followed. In an average 7.6-year follow up, 104 individuals experienced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 339 experienced stroke. Compared to serum total cholesterol, serum non-HDL cholesterol was more strongly associated with risk of AMI in a dose-response manner (multivariable adjusted incidence rate ratio per 1 SD increment [95% confidence interval]=1.49 [1.24-1.79] and 1.62 [1.35-1.95], respectively). Scoring systems were constructed based on multivariable Poisson regression models for predicting a 5-year probability of developing AMI; the non-HDL cholesterol model was found to have a better predictive ability (area under the receiver operating curve [AUC] =0.825) than the total cholesterol model (AUC= 0.815). Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol levels were associated with any stroke subtype. Conclusions: The risk of AMI can be more reliably predicted by serum non-HDL cholesterol than serum total cholesterol. The scoring systems are useful tools to predict risk of AMI. Neither total nor non-HDL serum cholesterol can predict stroke risk in the Japanese general population. Source


Hachisu Y.,Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health
Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology | Year: 2013

Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis is one of the methods for molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. VNTR analysis is a method based on PCR, provides rapid highly reproducible results and higher strain discrimination power than the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis widely used in molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genetic lineage compositions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates differ among the regions from where they are isolated, and allelic diversity at each locus also differs among the genetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, the combination of VNTR loci that can provide high discrimination capacity for analysis is not common in every region. The Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA) 12 (15) reported a standard combination of VNTR loci for analysis in Japan, and the combination with hypervariable (HV) loci added to JATA12 (15), which has very high discrimination capacity, was also reported. From these reports, it is thought that data sharing between institutions and construction of a nationwide database will progress from now on. Using database construction of VNTR profiles, VNTR analysis has become an effective tool to trace the route of tuberculosis infection, and also helps in decision-making in the treatment course. However, in order to utilize the results of VNTR analysis effectively, it is important that each related organization cooperates closely, and analysis should be appropriately applied in the system in which accurate control and private information protection are ensured. Source


Sajiki J.,Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health
Nippon eiseigaku zasshi. Japanese journal of hygiene | Year: 2010

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure when infants suck or chew infant books, the concentration of BPA leaching from infant books published by Japanese makers to artificial saliva was measured. METHODS: The concentration of BPA leaching from 10 infant books to 15 ml artificial saliva or water was measured at 37 degrees C for 20 hrs. BPA concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) with solid-phase extraction. RESULTS: BPA was leached from all books when pieces of them were dipped both into saliva and water for 20 hrs. The highest concentration of BPA leaching from one out of 10 books was 43.4 ng/ml (for 2 hrs) in saliva, which was estimated to be approximately 0.052 mg/kg body weight/day for infants aged 6-10 months. CONCLUSION: As BPA has endocrine-disrupting effects and poses higher risks in infants than in adults, it is desired to reduce BPA use in the printing of infant books from the viewpoint of child health. Source


Ezaki O.,Showa Womens University | Miyake Y.,Fukuoka University | Sato S.,Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Iso H.,Osaka University
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology | Year: 2013

In the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for fat, adequate intake (AI) and tentative dietary goal for preventing lifestyle-related disease (DGs) were used. AIs were set for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are essential fatty acids because they are not produced by the human body and their deficiency leads to dermatitis. DGs have been set for total fat, saturated fat, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, and cholesterol, whose consumption levels affect risk of lifestyle-related disease, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. As AI for n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, the 50th percentile of n-6 and n-3 fatty acid intake was set. In the Japanese population, 98% of dietary n-6 fatty acids come from linoleic acid; therefore the amount of n-6 fatty acid intake is considered to be that of linoleic acid. Both α-linolenic (60% of total n-3 fatty acids) acid and fish oils are considered essential fatty acids because it has been difficult to conclude that only α-linolenic acid is essential for humans. The prevention of diabetes mellitus and stroke was emphasized. For example, an increase in saturated fatty acids intake leads to increased incidences in obesity, diabetes, and myocardial infarction, whereas a decrease of saturated fatty acids intake is associated with increased incidence in brain hemorrhage. Therefore, DG of saturated fatty acids in those more than 18 y of age was set between 4.5 and 7% energy. Source


Hirai S.,Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Hirai S.,Chiba University | Yokoyama E.,Chiba Prefectural Institute of Public Health | Yamamoto T.,Chiba University
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

The distribution of insertion sequence (IS) 629 was investigated among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7/H-(O157) strains in different clades. Minimum spanning tree analysis showed that most strains in each clade clustered in a separate branch, indicating biased distribution of the IS. 629 insertion in different clades. The standardized index of association of the IS. 629 distribution data showed linkage disequilibrium in the strains in every clade, indicating that IS. 629 distribution data could be used for population genetic analysis. For this population genetic analysis, the ΦPT value, an analogue of FST, was calculated and indicated that clade 7 strains could be split into two clades based on their lineages. The degree of pairwise linkage disequilibrium was quite different among these two groups. The clade 7 split was in agreement with the model of O157 paraphyletic evolution and a new designation of the lineage II clades was proposed. The prevalence of strains with an IS. 629 insertion in certain loci was significantly different in different clades. Some of these significant differences were in loci in strains in branches of clades that were close in the O157 phylogenetic model, suggesting that IS. 629 insertion/deletion was not directly related to the divergence of O157 clades. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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