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Chiba, Japan

Chiba Institute of Science is a private university in Chōshi, Chiba, Japan, established in 2004. Wikipedia.

Kashiwagi K.,Chiba Institute of Science
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Polyamine content in cells is regulated by biosynthesis, degradation, and transport. With regard to transport, uptake and excretion proteins exist in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In E. coli, the uptake systems comprise a spermidine-preferential uptake system consisting of the PotA, B, C, and D proteins, and a putrescine-specific uptake system consisting of the PotF, G, H, and I proteins. Two other proteins, PotE and CadB, each containing 12 transmembrane segments, function as antiporters (putrescine-ornithine and cadaverine-lysine) and are important for cell growth at acidic pH. MdtJI was identified as a spermidine excretion system. When putrescine was used as energy source, PuuP functioned as a putrescine transporter. In S. cerevisiae, DUR3 and SAM3, containing 16 or 12 transmembrane segments, are the major polyamine uptake proteins, whereas TPO1 and TPO5, containing 12 transmembrane segments, are the major polyamine excretion proteins, and UGA4 is a putrescine transporter on the vacuolar membrane. The activities of DUR3 and TPO1 are regulated by phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues. The identification and assay procedures of these transporters are described in this chapter. Source

Kanamori-Kataoka M.,Chiba Institute of Science
Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS | Year: 2011

Ricin is a glycosylated proteinous toxin that is registered as toxic substance by Chemical Weapons convention. Current detection methods can result in false negatives and/or positives, and their criteria are not based on the identification of the protein amino acid sequences. In this study, lactose-immobilized monolithic silica extraction followed by tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was developed as a method for rapid and accurate determination of ricin. Lactose, which was immobilized on monolithic silica, was used as a capture ligand for ricin extraction from the sample solution, and the silica was supported in a disk-packed spin column. Recovery of ricin was more than 40%. After extraction, the extract was digested with trypsin and analyzed by LC/MS. The accurate masses of molecular ions and MS/MS spectra of the separated peptide peaks were measured by Fourier transform-MS and linear iontrap-MS, respectively. Six peptides, which were derived from the ricin A-(m/z 537.8, 448.8 and 586.8) and B-chains (m/z 701.3, 647.8 and 616.8), were chosen as marker peptides for the identification of ricin. Among these marker peptides, two peptides were ricin-specific. This method was applied to the determination of ricin from crude samples. The monolithic silica extraction removed most contaminant peaks from the total ion chromatogram of the sample, and the six marker peptides were clearly detected by LC/MS. It takes about 5 h for detection and identification of more than 8 ng/ml of ricin through the whole handling, and this procedure will be able to deal with the terrorism using chemical weapon. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) such as methamphetamine are widely abused and can cause toxic effects in the body. In this study, a simple and accurate analytical method for distribution measurement of drugs in organs was developed to visualize localization of ATS in organs and to complement drug distribution by mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). The brain, liver and kidney from rats to which ATS had been administered were segmented into blocks of 2×2×2 mm3 at -30°C. Each organ block was micropulverized with a stainless-steel bullet at -80°C. The concentrations of drugs in each block were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. The three-dimensional distribution of drugs in a whole organ was expressed using color gradation of drug concentration after reconstruction of all blocks to the original locations. The distribution was also compared with that obtained by MSI. This method enabled measurement of drug distribution in organs with simple and clean procedures and accurate quantification unlike autoradiography and MSI. The methamphetamine concentrations were different between parts in an organ, particularly in the kidney. This method could be applicable to the measurement of the distribution of compounds in various solid samples and could be used as a complementary method for the measurement of the distribution of compounds by MSI. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Matsuda I.,Chiba Institute of Science | Nittono H.,Hiroshima University
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2015

Objective: The interaction between affective and cognitive processes has been examined using the late positive potential (LPP) component of the event-related brain potential. The LPP is elicited not only by affective stimuli but also by nonaffective stimuli that require effortful cognitive processing. However, it is unclear whether these LPPs are equivalent. The present study decomposed the LPP into subcomponents that responded differently to affective content and cognitive demands. Methods: The participants (N= 21) performed four types of revised oddball tasks, in which one affective and five nonaffective pictures were presented. For one of the nonaffective pictures, different cognitive demands were loaded: viewing the display, updating a count, updating two different items, or concealing knowledge of the picture. Results: A temporal-spatial principal component analysis revealed two major subcomponents of the LPP. The central-parietal subcomponent was elicited by affective stimuli, whereas the occipital subcomponent was elicited by nonaffective stimuli with cognitive demands in the two-item updating and concealment conditions. Conclusions: The results suggest that the central-parietal dominant LPP may reflect motivated attentional processing, whereas the occipital dominant LPP may reflect effortful controlled processing. Significance: Dealing with these two LPP subcomponents separately may be useful for examining the interaction between affective and cognitive processing of stimuli. © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Source

Akutsu T.,Chiba Institute of Science
International journal of legal medicine | Year: 2010

Statherin is a low molecular-weight phosphoprotein secreted from the parotid gland. Statherin mRNA was previously reported to be a useful marker for mRNA-based saliva identification. In this study, applicability of ELISA detection of statherin for forensic identification of saliva was investigated. The specificity and sensitivity of ELISA for detection of statherin were compared with those of ELISA for α-amylase and the Phadebas® amylase test. Statherin was specifically detected in saliva but not in other body fluids. In addition, statherin was successfully detected in aged saliva stains, mixed body fluids-saliva stains, and simulated casework samples. On the other hand, although ELISA for α-amylase showed higher sensitivity than ELISA for statherin, it was not specific enough to identify saliva. The Phadebas® amylase test also showed positive results in other body fluids that are known to have α-amylase activity; however, it is easy to use for screening forensic casework samples. In conclusion, ELISA for detection of statherin developed in this study could be an effective tool for the forensic identification of saliva because of its specificity for saliva among other body fluids. Forensic casework samples should be tested by ELISA detection or mRNA-based analysis for statherin, depending on the condition of the sample, to supplement presumptive tests for α-amylase, such as the Phadebas® amylase test. Source

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