Chiba East National Hospital

Chiba, Japan

Chiba East National Hospital

Chiba, Japan
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Yoshiyama Y.,Chiba East National Hospital | Kojima A.,Chiba East National Hospital | Itoh K.,Chiba East National Hospital | Uchiyama T.,Chiba University | Arai K.,Chiba East National Hospital
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2012

Anticholinergics, and drugs with anticholinergic properties, are widely and frequently prescribed, especially to the elderly. It is well known that these drugs decrease cognitive function and increase the risk of dementia. Although the mechanism of anticholinergic drug-induced cognitive impairment has been assumed to be functionally reduced acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmission, some data have indicated that anticholinergics might enhance the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the pathological effects of anticholinergics on neurodegeneration. We chronically administered two anticholinergics, trihexyphenidyl (TP) and propiverine (PP) (the latter with less central anticholinergic action), to neurodegenerative tauopathy model mice 2 to 10. months old. Furthermore, because the ACh nervous system regulates both central and peripheral inflammation, we administered TP or PP to PS19 mice in which we had artificially induced inflammation by lipopolysaccharide injection. Tau pathology, synaptic loss, and neurodegeneration in the hippocampal region, as well as tau insolubility and phosphorylation, were markedly increased in TP-treated mice and mildly increased in PP-treated mice. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed microglial proliferation and activation. Moreover, anticholinergics increased interleukin-1β expression in both the spleen and brain of the tauopathy model mice intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce systemic inflammation. Interestingly, these alterations were more strongly observed in TP-treated mice than in PP-treated mice, consistent with the level of central anticholinergic action. Anticholinergic drugs not only impair cognitive function by decreased ACh neurotransmission, but also accelerate neurodegeneration by suppressing an ACh-dependent anti-inflammatory system. Anticholinergics should be less readily prescribed to reduce the risk of dementia. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Yoshiyama Y.,Chiba East National Hospital | Lee V.M.Y.,University of Pennsylvania | Trojanowski J.Q.,University of Pennsylvania
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Based on the amyloid hypothesis, controlling β-amyloid protein (Aβ) accumulation is supposed to suppress downstream pathological events, tau accumulation, neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. However, in recent clinical trials, Aβ removal or reducing Aβ production has shown limited efficacy. Moreover, while active immunisation with Aβ resulted in the clearance of Aβ, it did not prevent tau pathology or neurodegeneration. This prompts the concern that it might be too late to employ Aβ targeting therapies once tau mediated neurodegeneration has occurred. Therefore, it is timely and very important to develop tau directed therapies. The pathomechanisms of tau mediated neurodegeneration are unclear but hyperphosphorylation, oligomerisation, fibrillisation and propagation of tau pathology have been proposed as the likely pathological processes that induce loss of function or gain of toxic function of tau, causing neurodegeneration. Here we review the strategies for tau directed treatments based on recent progress in research on tau and our understanding of the pathomechanisms of tau mediated neurodegeneration.

Noguchi H.,Chiba East National Hospital | Noguchi H.,University of Ryukyus | Noguchi H.,Okayama University of Science | Noguchi H.,Chiba University | And 5 more authors.
Cell Death and Differentiation | Year: 2015

Although induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have significant implications for overcoming most of the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells, there are still several unresolved issues related to the use of iPS cells for clinical applications, such as teratoma formation. In this study, we were able to generate tissue-specific stem (induced tissue-specific stem; iTS) cells from the pancreas (iTS-P) or liver (iTS-L) by transient overexpression of reprogramming factors, combined with tissue-specific selection. The generation of iTS cells was easier than that of iPS cells. The iTS-P/iTS-L cells express genetic markers of endoderm and pancreatic/hepatic progenitors and were able to differentiate into insulin-producing cells/hepatocytes more efficiently than ES cells. Subcutaneous transplantation of both types of iTS cells into immunodeficient mice resulted in no teratoma formation. The technology used for the transient overexpression of reprogramming factors and tissue-specific selection may be useful for the generation of other tissue-specific stem cells, and the generation of iTS cells could have important implications for the clinical application of stem cells. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Pennsylvania, Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Mayo Medical School and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Brain : a journal of neurology | Year: 2017

Diverse neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by deposition of tau fibrils composed of conformers (i.e. strains) unique to each illness. The development of tau imaging agents has enabled visualization of tau lesions in tauopathy patients, but the modes of their binding to different tau strains remain elusive. Here we compared binding of tau positron emission tomography ligands, PBB3 and AV-1451, by fluorescence, autoradiography and homogenate binding assays with homologous and heterologous blockades using tauopathy brain samples. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated intense labelling of non-ghost and ghost tangles with PBB3 and AV-1451, while dystrophic neurites were more clearly detected by PBB3 in brains of Alzheimers disease and diffuse neurofibrillary tangles with calcification, characterized by accumulation of all six tau isoforms. Correspondingly, partially distinct distributions of autoradiographic labelling of Alzheimers disease slices with

Koga S.,Chiba University | Kojima A.,Chiba East National Hospital | Kuwabara S.,Chiba University | Yoshiyama Y.,Chiba East National Hospital | Yoshiyama Y.,Chiba University
Neuroscience Letters | Year: 2014

Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity is an independent risk factor for developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent studies have shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO) enhances AD-related pathologies in transgenic mouse models of the disease. DIO increases amyloid β (Aβ) deposition in amyloidogenic transgenic mice and enhances tau phosphorylation in tau transgenic mice. However, it remains unclear whether DIO also enhances AD-related pathological processes in wild-type (WT) mice. In this study, we examined the effects of DIO on Aβ and tau pathology in WT mice using immunohistochemistry. In addition, we evaluated the protective effect of voluntary exercise on the DIO-induced pathological changes. DIO caused tau phosphorylation and astroglial activation in the hippocampus in WT mice. Interestingly, these changes were associated with enhanced astrocytic leptin receptor (LepR) expression and mild microgliosis, but not Aβ accumulation. Although phosphorylated tau staining was only observed in the hippocampus, astrogliosis and microgliosis were present in both the amygdala and hippocampus. However, no apparent neuronal loss was observed. Voluntary exercise prevented these DIO-induced pathological changes. Our results demonstrate for the first time that DIO causes tau phosphorylation and that astrocytic LepR might be involved in the pathological process in WT mouse hippocampus. Our findings also suggest that physical exercise is a promising strategy for the prevention of AD in patients with obesity. © 2014 The Authors.

Uzawa A.,Chiba University | Mori M.,Chiba University | Arai K.,Chiba East National Hospital | Sato Y.,Chiba University | And 4 more authors.
Multiple Sclerosis | Year: 2010

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is assumed to be immunologically distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS). Adequate studies about cytokines and chemokines in NMO have been lacking. Objective: To investigate the contribution of cytokines/chemokines in the pathogenesis of NMO. Methods: We measured 27 cytokines/chemokines and Th17 cell-associated cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 31 NMO, 29 MS and 18 other non-inflammatory neurological disorders patients. The serum levels of some cytokines/ chemokines were also measured. The correlations between clinical characteristics/laboratory findings and levels of cytokines/chemokines in NMO were examined. Results: The CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, IL-13 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were significantly increased in NMO, while IL-9, fibroblast growth factor-basic, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased in MS. IL-10 and interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 were elevated in NMO and MS. In serum analyses, only the IL-6 level showed significant elevation in NMO. The CSF IL-6 level had a significant correlation with the CSF glial fibrillary acidic protein level and CSF cells, and a weak correlation with anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. Conclusions: Different immunological status and pathophysiologies exist between NMO and MS, and IL-6 may play important roles in the pathogenesis of NMO. © The Author(s) 2010.

Koga S.,Chiba University | Kojima A.,Chiba East National Hospital | Ishikawa C.,Chiba East National Hospital | Kuwabara S.,Chiba University | And 4 more authors.
Neurobiology of Disease | Year: 2014

The number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing worldwide, and available drugs have shown limited efficacy. Hence, preventive interventions and treatments for presymptomatic AD are currently considered very important. Obesity rates have also been increasing dramatically and it is an independent risk factor of AD. Therefore, for the prevention of AD, it is important to elucidate the pathomechanism between obesity and AD. We generated high calorie diet (HCD)-induced obese tauopathy model mice (PS19), which showed hyperleptinemia but limited insulin resistance. HCD enhanced tau pathology and glial activation. Conversely, voluntary exercise with a running wheel normalized the serum leptin concentration without reducing body weight, and restored the pathological changes induced by HCD. Thus, we speculated that persistent hyperleptinemia played an important role in accelerating pathological changes in PS19 mice. Leptin primarily regulates food intake and body weight via leptin receptor b (LepRb). Interestingly, the nuclear staining for p-STAT3, which was activated by LepRb, was decreased in hippocampal neurons in HCD PS19 mice, indicating leptin resistance. Meanwhile, astroglial activation and the astrocytic expression of a short LepR isoform, LepRa, were enhanced in the hippocampus of HCD PS19 mice. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that leptin increased mRNA levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α in primary cultured astrocytes from wild type and LepRb-deficient mice. These observations suggest that persistent hyperleptinemia caused by obesity induces astrocytic activation, astrocytic leptin hypersensitivity with enhanced LepRa expression, and enhanced inflammation, consequently accelerating tau pathology in PS19 mice. © 2014.

Yoshiyama Y.,Chiba University | Yoshiyama Y.,Chiba East National Hospital | Tokumaru Y.,Chiba University | Arai K.,Chiba University | Arai K.,Chiba East National Hospital
Journal of Neurology | Year: 2010

Two patients with a condition clinically resembling juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper extremity (Hirayama disease) showed forward protrusive movement of the posterior cervical dura matter during neck flexion. The dura displacement was characteristically limited in an approximately central portion of the posterior dura, which is different from Hirayama disease, which exhibits whole posterior dura displacement. Interestingly, the restricted dura in these patients showed thickening with reduced elastic fibers, indicating that the decreased stretchability of the posterior dura had caused motor dominant cervical myelopathy. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

Inoue Y.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Sohara E.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | Kobayashi K.,Chiba East National Hospital | Chiga M.,Tokyo Medical and Dental University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2014

We previously reported that disruption of the aquaporin-11 (AQP11) gene in mice resulted in cystogenesis in the kidney. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of cystogenesis in AQP11(-/-) mice. To enable the analyses of AQP11 at the protein level in vivo, AQP11 BAC transgenicmice (TgAQP11) that express 3X HA-tagged AQP11 protein were generated. This AQP11 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of proximal tubule cells in TgAQP11 mice and rescued renal cystogenesis in AQP11(2 /2) mice. Therefore, we hypothesized that the absence of AQP11 in the ER could result in impaired quality control and aberrant trafficking of polycystin-1 (PC-1) and polycystin-2 (PC-2). Compared with kidneys of wild-type mice, AQP11(-/-) kidneys exhibited increased protein expression levels of PC-1 and decreased protein expression levels of PC-2. Moreover, PC-1 isolated from AQP11(-/-) mice displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility caused by impaired N-glycosylation processing, and density gradient centrifugation of kidney homogenate and in vivo protein biotinylation revealed impaired membrane trafficking of PC-1 in these mice. Finally, we showed that the Pkd1(+/-) background increased the severity of cystogenesis in AQP11(-/-)mouse kidneys, indicating that PC-1 is involved in the mechanism of cystogenesis in AQP11(-/-) mice. Additionally, the primary cilia of proximal tubules were elongated in AQP11(-/-)mice. Taken together, these data show that impaired glycosylation processing and aberrant membrane trafficking of PC-1 in AQP11(-/-) mice could be a key mechanism of cystogenesis in AQP11(-/-) mice. © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

Yoshiyama Y.,Chiba East National Hospital | Kojima A.,Chiba East National Hospital | Ishikawa C.,Chiba East National Hospital | Arai K.,Chiba East National Hospital
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2010

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are widely used to compensate for acetylcholine (ACh) depletion in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Some clinical and experimental studies, however, have suggested that AChEIs also provide neuroprotection. To assess the effect of AChEIs on neurodegeneration, donepezil (DZ), an AChEI, was administered to FTDP-17 model mice with a P301S tau mutation (line PS19). Eight months of DZ treatment resulted in amelioration of neuroinflammation, tau pathology, synaptic loss, and neuronal loss, as well as decreased tau insolubility and phosphorylation. Tau kinase activity analysis demonstrated significantly suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the brains of DZ-treated PS19 mice. Recently, ACh has been shown to suppress inflammation, which plays a role in neurodegeneration. To confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of DZ, PS19 mice were injected with lipopolysaccharide, in combination with or without DZ, for one month. Results demonstrated that DZ suppressed IL-1β and COX-2 expression in the brain, as well as the spleen, suggesting that DZ directly prevents systemic inflammation. These data indicated that ACh did not act just as a cognition-linking neurotransmitter, but might suppress pathological mechanisms of neurodegeneration via anti-inflammatory action. © 2010 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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