Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station

Chiayi, Taiwan

Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station

Chiayi, Taiwan
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Chen D.-Y.,Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute | Ni H.-F.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | Tsay T.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Chen R.-S.,National Chiayi University
Nematology | Year: 2011

Hemicriconemoides mangiferae and H. litchi, which have been considered as junior synonyms of H. strictathecatus, are morphologically similar, making identification difficult. In the present study, six populations of Hemicriconemoides spp. were collected from mango and litchi in Taiwan and were differentiated based on morphometrics and molecular characteristics. By comparing morphometric data from females and males, three populations collected from mango were identified as H. mangiferae and another three populations from litchi were identified as H. litchi. According to SEM, both of the H. mangiferae and H. litchi males had an areolated lateral field with four incisures; caudal alae were not found. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) from these nematode populations were sequenced and aligned. The sequence identity of the ITS region was 89-95% between H. mangiferae and H. litchi populations, suggesting rDNA sequence divergence could be a taxonomic aid for species differentiation. Since H. mangiferae and H. litchi are closely related to H. strictathecatus, more rDNA sequence information could be valuable to deal with molecular phylogenetic relationships of these species in depth. © 2011 BRILL.


Chiang C.-H.,Da - Yeh University | Yu T.-A.,Da - Yeh University | Lo S.-F.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | Kuo C.-L.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2012

The genus Dendrobium is important in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, and the precise identification of Dendrobium species is critical for the treatment and for pharmacological research. In the present study, a ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region-based analysis was used to ascertain the phylogenetic relationship among 20 Dendrobium species. The lengths of the ITS regions among the 20 species ranged from 636 to 653 bp, and the identities of the rDNA regions among the different species ranged from 75.7% to 99.1%. The results also showed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions exhibit more variation than the 5.8S rDNA. A phylogenetic tree derived from the ITS sequence indicated that six medicinal Dendrobium species, of which five are common medicinal plants in the Taiwan market, were closely related and shared a common clade. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was successfully performed to identify the six medicinal Dendrobium species, and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR was used to distinguish D. tosaense specifically from the 19 other Dendrobium species. The established PCR-based (multiplex and ARMS) analyses can be used for the authentication of the raw materials of medicinal Dendrobium from other species.


Lin K.H.,Chinese Culture University | Chiang C.M.,Ming Chuan University | Lai Y.C.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | You S.H.,Chinese Culture University | Lo H.F.,National Taiwan University
Research Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The objectives of this study were to identify chilling stress-response genes of a chilling-tolerant sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) variety, 'Tainung 71' and to measure the regulation of gene expression after exposure to 7°Cfor 1 day. RNAs from plants subjected to chilling periods for 6 h as well as non-chilled plants (control) were used as the tester and driver samples respectively. After suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were cloned into a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. The unique cDNA inserts were screened for differential expression by dot blotting and the identified clones were then picked for DNA sequencing. Using BLAST and Gene Ontology database searches to annotate the putative functions of the genes, 8 of these unigenes were found to be involved in metabolism, stress, regulation and development categories, whereas 2 genes with unknown functions were also identified. Two differentially expressed gene transcript with known function were selected for real-time PCR and found to be upregulated across chilling times in contrast to the actin gene (control). Our results indicate that chilling-induced genes are related to metabolic pathways and genetic regulation of stress and development and can serve as a foundation for future studies to elucidate chilling stress mechanisms of sweet potato.


Lin K.H.,Chinese Culture University | Shih M.C.,Chinese Culture University | Tsai W.C.,Chinese Culture University | Lo H.F.,National Taiwan University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2011

The objective of this experiment was to study changes in sprouting and quality of three sweet potato roots; 'Tainung 10' (TN10), 'Tainung 57' (TN57) and 'Satusumahikari' (SH), as affected by white-, red- and blue-light treatments during storage for 3 months at 25°C. Three samples of each variety were randomly withdrawn from growth chambers at weekly intervals for quality assessments. We concluded that genotypes treated with various light spectra exhibited specific characteristics of sprouting, weight loss, starch and sugar contents, and β-amylase activity during storage. Compared to white- and blue-light treatments, red-light-treated TN10 roots had a significant lower sprouting rate, sugar content and β-amylase activity. However, in the case of TN57, with blue-light treatment, there was a significantly lower sprouting rate, sugar content and β-amylase activity compared to the other treatments. SH contained a significantly lower starch level and β-amylase activity, and higher sucrose content than in TN10 and TN57 in all treatments. Sprouting of stored roots showed starch hydrolysis accompanied by the accumulation of sugar and β-amylase activity. Although starch was converted into sugars, sprouting from the raw sweet potato was delayed during prolonged storage by the light spectral treatment. To develop a practical technique of manipulating the light spectrum requires experimentation with more cultivars and a wider range of light regions and temperatures.


Wu Y.-P.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | Pu C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lin H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Huang H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2015

Rice is a major food source for much of the world, and expanding our knowledge of genes conferring specific rice grain attributes will benefit both farmer and consumer. Here we present novel dull grain mutants with a low amylose content (AC) derived from mutagenesis of Oryza sativa, ssp. japonica cv. Taikeng 8 (TK8). Positional cloning of the gene conferring the dull grain phenotype revealed a point mutation located at the acceptor splice site of intron 11 of FLOURY ENDOSPERM2 (. FLO2), encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat domain (TPR)-containing protein. Three novel flo2 alleles were identified herein, which surprisingly conferred dull rather than floury grains. The allelic diversity of flo2 perturbed the expression of starch synthesis-related genes including OsAGPL2, OsAGPS2b, OsGBSSI, OsBEI, OsBEIIb, OsISA1, and OsPUL. The effect of the flo2 mutations on the physicochemical properties of the grain included a low breakdown, setback, and consistency of rice, indicating a good elasticity and soft texture of cooked rice grains. The effects of FLO2, combined with the genetic background of the germplasm and environmental effects, resulted in a variety of different amylose content levels, grain appearance, and physicochemical properties of rice, providing a host of useful information to future grain-quality research and breeding. © 2014 The Authors.


Lai Y.C.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | Wang S.Y.,Chinese Culture University | Gao H.Y.,Chinese Culture University | Nguyen K.M.,Ton Duc Thang University | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The functional properties of starches from six sweet potato varieties containing various starch components and structures were studied in an attempt to identify starch sources for industrial uses. Tainan 18 (TNN18) with high-amylose (AM) starch exhibited high setback and breakdown viscosities, high water solubility at 85 °C but low swelling volume at 65 °C, and high hardness and adhesiveness; in contrast, the low-AM starch of Tainung 31 (TNG31) had opposite characteristics. Seven genes related to starch biosynthesis were tested, and GBSS, SS, SBEII, ISA, and AGPase were highly expressed in TNN18 and TNG31; however, transcript levels in DBE and SBE were extremely low. GBSS and SS activity reflected the abundance of GBSS and SS mRNA in TNG31 and TNN18, and expression of AGPase, GBSS, SS, and SBE in TNN18 substantially increased content of AM. The expression and activity of DBE had a significant effect on TNG31 with increased AP content. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station and National Taiwan University
Type: | Journal: Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology | Year: 2015

Rice is a major food source for much of the world, and expanding our knowledge of genes conferring specific rice grain attributes will benefit both farmer and consumer. Here we present novel dull grain mutants with a low amylose content (AC) derived from mutagenesis of Oryza sativa, ssp. japonica cv. Taikeng 8 (TK8). Positional cloning of the gene conferring the dull grain phenotype revealed a point mutation located at the acceptor splice site of intron 11 of FLOURY ENDOSPERM2 (FLO2), encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat domain (TPR)-containing protein. Three novel flo2 alleles were identified herein, which surprisingly conferred dull rather than floury grains. The allelic diversity of flo2 perturbed the expression of starch synthesis-related genes including OsAGPL2, OsAGPS2b, OsGBSSI, OsBEI, OsBEIIb, OsISA1, and OsPUL. The effect of the flo2 mutations on the physicochemical properties of the grain included a low breakdown, setback, and consistency of rice, indicating a good elasticity and soft texture of cooked rice grains. The effects of FLO2, combined with the genetic background of the germplasm and environmental effects, resulted in a variety of different amylose content levels, grain appearance, and physicochemical properties of rice, providing a host of useful information to future grain-quality research and breeding.


Mavuso C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Wu Y.-P.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | Chen F.-C.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Huang B.-H.,National Taiwan Normal University | Lin S.-J.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

The study of genetic diversity in different Jatropha curcas L. accessions cultivated in Taiwan comprises a necessary first step in germplasm evaluation towards improving this plant species. Genetic variations of 78 Jatropha curcas L. accessions representing origin of eight countries, cultivated in two locations in Taiwan were determined using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. Out of 22 screened UBC primers set No. 9, ten primers amplified a total of 27 loci with 23 be polymorphic (85.19 %). Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis indicated two main clusters with the Dice coefficient of similarity ranging from 0.62 to 1.00. Although the grouping was not related to cultivation locations, there was close genetic relationship among the Jatropha populations. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 31.23 % of the variability attributable to among populations with the remaining 68.77 % within Jatropha populations. The overall analysis of different populations suggests less variation of cultivated Jatropha populations in Taiwan. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Wu C.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Huang K.-S.,I - Shou University | Yang C.-H.,I - Shou University | Chen Y.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2014

Dendrobium tosaense is one of the most valuable Chinese medicines and well developed health food. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease that occurs mainly in childhood. The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis had been studied in BALB/c mice modeling by skin-inoculated ovalbumin (OVA) with 2,4,6-trinitro-1-chrolobenzene (TNCB). These mice exhibit features of chronic dermatitis, including skin rash, mast cells infiltration, and elevated serum anti-OVA specific IgE and cytokines modulation. In this study, a standardized ethyl acetate extract of D. tosaense (DtE) was used to protect these mice from the OVA/TNCB-induced skin lesions of atopic dermatitis. The results indicated an increased population of natural T regulatory cell was accompanied by immunosuppression in cytokine profiles and anti-OVA IgE level to significantly reduce Th2 polarization. Finally, toluidine blue staining indicated mast cell infiltration and degranulation was reduced in skin lesion. Our results were shed light on the usage of D. tosaense in AD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wu C.-T.,National Chung Hsing University | Gupta S.K.,Chaoyang University of Technology | Wang A.Z.-M.,National Chung Hsing University | Lo S.-F.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis | Year: 2012

Herba Dendrobii, commonly known as "Shi-hu", has been used as a precious traditional Chinese medicine. It is expensive and adulteration are common due to high demand. The method to distinguish the herb from adulterant species is necessary. In the present study, internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region-based analysis was employed to ascertain the phylogenetic relationship among the 11 Dendrobium and two adulterant species Pholidota articulata and Flickingeria comate. Results showed that the length of the ITS regions among the thirteen species ranged from 635 to 641 bp and the GC ratio in ITS (ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2) regions ranged from 50.55% to 57.25%. Dendrobium species was significantly different from one another by an average of 13.20% and from P. articulata and F. comate by 42.00% and 29.00% respectively. The molecular phylogenetic trees indicated that most of Dendrobium species are closely related and share common clad while both the adulterants outgroup and have separated clad. Therefore, ITS regions can be used as a molecular marker to differentiate medicinal Dendrobium spp. from one another and also from adulterants.

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