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Chiang C.-H.,Da - Yeh University | Yu T.-A.,Da - Yeh University | Lo S.-F.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | Kuo C.-L.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science

The genus Dendrobium is important in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, and the precise identification of Dendrobium species is critical for the treatment and for pharmacological research. In the present study, a ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region-based analysis was used to ascertain the phylogenetic relationship among 20 Dendrobium species. The lengths of the ITS regions among the 20 species ranged from 636 to 653 bp, and the identities of the rDNA regions among the different species ranged from 75.7% to 99.1%. The results also showed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions exhibit more variation than the 5.8S rDNA. A phylogenetic tree derived from the ITS sequence indicated that six medicinal Dendrobium species, of which five are common medicinal plants in the Taiwan market, were closely related and shared a common clade. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was successfully performed to identify the six medicinal Dendrobium species, and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR was used to distinguish D. tosaense specifically from the 19 other Dendrobium species. The established PCR-based (multiplex and ARMS) analyses can be used for the authentication of the raw materials of medicinal Dendrobium from other species. Source

Lin K.H.,Chinese Culture University | Chiang C.M.,Ming Chuan University | Lai Y.C.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | You S.H.,Chinese Culture University | Lo H.F.,National Taiwan University
Research Journal of Biotechnology

The objectives of this study were to identify chilling stress-response genes of a chilling-tolerant sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) variety, 'Tainung 71' and to measure the regulation of gene expression after exposure to 7°Cfor 1 day. RNAs from plants subjected to chilling periods for 6 h as well as non-chilled plants (control) were used as the tester and driver samples respectively. After suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were cloned into a vector and transformed into Escherichia coli. The unique cDNA inserts were screened for differential expression by dot blotting and the identified clones were then picked for DNA sequencing. Using BLAST and Gene Ontology database searches to annotate the putative functions of the genes, 8 of these unigenes were found to be involved in metabolism, stress, regulation and development categories, whereas 2 genes with unknown functions were also identified. Two differentially expressed gene transcript with known function were selected for real-time PCR and found to be upregulated across chilling times in contrast to the actin gene (control). Our results indicate that chilling-induced genes are related to metabolic pathways and genetic regulation of stress and development and can serve as a foundation for future studies to elucidate chilling stress mechanisms of sweet potato. Source

Wu Y.-P.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | Pu C.-H.,National Taiwan University | Lin H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | Huang H.-Y.,National Taiwan University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Science

Rice is a major food source for much of the world, and expanding our knowledge of genes conferring specific rice grain attributes will benefit both farmer and consumer. Here we present novel dull grain mutants with a low amylose content (AC) derived from mutagenesis of Oryza sativa, ssp. japonica cv. Taikeng 8 (TK8). Positional cloning of the gene conferring the dull grain phenotype revealed a point mutation located at the acceptor splice site of intron 11 of FLOURY ENDOSPERM2 (. FLO2), encoding a tetratricopeptide repeat domain (TPR)-containing protein. Three novel flo2 alleles were identified herein, which surprisingly conferred dull rather than floury grains. The allelic diversity of flo2 perturbed the expression of starch synthesis-related genes including OsAGPL2, OsAGPS2b, OsGBSSI, OsBEI, OsBEIIb, OsISA1, and OsPUL. The effect of the flo2 mutations on the physicochemical properties of the grain included a low breakdown, setback, and consistency of rice, indicating a good elasticity and soft texture of cooked rice grains. The effects of FLO2, combined with the genetic background of the germplasm and environmental effects, resulted in a variety of different amylose content levels, grain appearance, and physicochemical properties of rice, providing a host of useful information to future grain-quality research and breeding. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Lin K.H.,Chinese Culture University | Shih M.C.,Chinese Culture University | Tsai W.C.,Chinese Culture University | Lo H.F.,National Taiwan University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment

The objective of this experiment was to study changes in sprouting and quality of three sweet potato roots; 'Tainung 10' (TN10), 'Tainung 57' (TN57) and 'Satusumahikari' (SH), as affected by white-, red- and blue-light treatments during storage for 3 months at 25°C. Three samples of each variety were randomly withdrawn from growth chambers at weekly intervals for quality assessments. We concluded that genotypes treated with various light spectra exhibited specific characteristics of sprouting, weight loss, starch and sugar contents, and β-amylase activity during storage. Compared to white- and blue-light treatments, red-light-treated TN10 roots had a significant lower sprouting rate, sugar content and β-amylase activity. However, in the case of TN57, with blue-light treatment, there was a significantly lower sprouting rate, sugar content and β-amylase activity compared to the other treatments. SH contained a significantly lower starch level and β-amylase activity, and higher sucrose content than in TN10 and TN57 in all treatments. Sprouting of stored roots showed starch hydrolysis accompanied by the accumulation of sugar and β-amylase activity. Although starch was converted into sugars, sprouting from the raw sweet potato was delayed during prolonged storage by the light spectral treatment. To develop a practical technique of manipulating the light spectrum requires experimentation with more cultivars and a wider range of light regions and temperatures. Source

Lai Y.C.,Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station | Wang S.Y.,Chinese Culture University | Gao H.Y.,Chinese Culture University | Nguyen K.M.,Ton Duc Thang University | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry

The functional properties of starches from six sweet potato varieties containing various starch components and structures were studied in an attempt to identify starch sources for industrial uses. Tainan 18 (TNN18) with high-amylose (AM) starch exhibited high setback and breakdown viscosities, high water solubility at 85 °C but low swelling volume at 65 °C, and high hardness and adhesiveness; in contrast, the low-AM starch of Tainung 31 (TNG31) had opposite characteristics. Seven genes related to starch biosynthesis were tested, and GBSS, SS, SBEII, ISA, and AGPase were highly expressed in TNN18 and TNG31; however, transcript levels in DBE and SBE were extremely low. GBSS and SS activity reflected the abundance of GBSS and SS mRNA in TNG31 and TNN18, and expression of AGPase, GBSS, SS, and SBE in TNN18 substantially increased content of AM. The expression and activity of DBE had a significant effect on TNG31 with increased AP content. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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