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Huang Y.-T.,Chiao Tung University | Huang C.-W.,Chiao Tung University | Chen J.-Y.,Chiao Tung University | Ting Y.-H.,Chiao Tung University | And 3 more authors.
Nano Research | Year: 2016

Electromigration in Cu has been extensively investigated as the root cause of typical breakdown failure in Cu interconnects. In this study, Cu nanowires connected to Au electrodes are fabricated and observed using in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the electro- and thermo-migration processes that are induced by direct current sweeps. We observe the dynamic evolution of different mass transport mechanisms. A current density on the order of 106 A/cm2 and a temperature of approximately 400 °C are sufficient to induce electro- and thermo-migration, respectively. Observations of the migration processes activated by increasing temperatures indicate that the migration direction of Cu atoms is dependent on the net force from the electric field and electron wind. This work is expected to support future design efforts to improve the robustness of Cu interconnects. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Huang C.-W.,Chiao Tung University | Chen J.-Y.,Chiao Tung University | Chiu C.-H.,Chiao Tung University | Hsin C.-L.,Central University of Costa Rica | And 2 more authors.
Nano Research | Year: 2016

Graphene has demonstrated its potential in several practical applications owing to its remarkable electronic and physical properties. In this study, we successfully fabricated a suspended graphene device with a width down to 20 nm. The morphological evolution of graphene under various electric field effects was systematically examined using an in-situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The hourglass-shaped graphene sample instantly broke apart at 7.5 mA, indicating an impressive breakdown current density. The current-carrying capacity was calculated to be ~1.6 × 109 A·cm–2, which is several orders higher than that of copper. The current-carrying capacity depended on the resistivity of graphene. In addition, atomic volume changes occurred in the multilayer graphene samples due to surface diffusion and Ostwald ripening (OR), indicating that the breakdown mechanism is well approximated by the electric field. This study not only provides a theory to explain the breakdown behavior but also presents the effects on materials contacted with a graphene layer used as the transmission path.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | Chiao Tung University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal | Year: 2011

Intra-and inter-particle coupling effects are important but have not been properly taken into account in modeling the optical response of an array of nano-objects. In this paper, we present a method to analyze the impact of electric quadrupolar coupling on the optical response of a layer of silver nanorods fabricated with oblique-angle deposition (OAD). Our technique can render the non-locally coupled nano-objects into an array of coarse-grained induced charges. The retrieved polarizability tensor of the silver nanorods exhibits non-zero off-diagonal components, revealing information about the array structure and inter-particle quadrupolar couplings. Thus, a more transparent picture of the correlation between the function and structure of an optical metamaterial can be yielded.


PubMed | Chiao Tung University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal | Year: 2011

Time-resolved two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy has been applied to analyse an electro-optic switching ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) mixture. The 2D IR correlation technique clearly shows that the Goldstone mode in the SmC* phase is suppressed by an applied electric field. The field-induced reorientation process initiates from intramolecular motions in about 10s. The intramolecular motions then propagate from the molecular segments attached to the same molecule to those fragments on other surrounding molecules. During the field-induced switching, the IR dipoles undergo a collective reorientation but with hindered rotation about the molecular long axis.


PubMed | Chiao Tung University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics | Year: 2012

We formalize a theory to help explore the effect of conformational fluctuation on the energy landscape evolution of single-molecule protein. Using this formalization, we investigate the photon emission from single photoactivated fluorescent protein. A bimodal regulation on the energy landscape evolution was discovered, and its origin was attributed to slow conformational fluctuations of the protein matrix.

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