Wutichouy W.,Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital |
Kritpetcharat B.,Khon Kaen University
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012
Cervical cancer is an important woman's health problems worldwide, especially in low socio-economic countries. The aim of this study was to compare the Pap smear screening results between Akha hill tribe and urban women who live in Chiang Rai province, Thailand. Screening was conducted for 1,100 Akha women and 1,100 urban women who came to have the Pap smear at Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital and 1 private cytology laboratory from January to June 2008. The demographic characteristics and factors related to abnormal Pap smears of these women were gathered using closed model questionnaies. Abnormal pap smears were defind according to the Bethesda 2001 system. The results showed that the prevalence of abnormal Pap smears was 12.2% in Akha women and 4.5% in urban women. The highest prevalence of Pap abnormalities was found in the 41-50 years age group in both populations (4.5% in Akha and 1.7% in urban women). In both populations, abnormal Pap smears were found in<21 years age groups. From the questionnaires, the possible risk factors related to the higher prevalence of abnormal Pap smears in akha women were early age at marrage (≤17 years), high frequency pregnacies and high parity and no/low education level. In conclusion, cervical cancer control by education and early detection by Pap smear screening is necessary for hill tribe women. More Pap smear screening service units should be set to improve the coverage for the risk group women who got married in young age, especial in ethnic groups.
PubMed | Institute of Infectious Diseases, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Capital Medical University, Mahidol University and 19 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
In resource-limited settings, routine monitoring of renal function during antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been recommended. However, concerns for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related nephrotoxicity persist with increased use.We investigated serum creatinine (S-Cr) monitoring rates before and during ART and the incidence and prevalence of renal dysfunction after starting TDF by using data from a regional cohort of HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific. Time to renal dysfunction was defined as time from TDF initiation to the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 ml/min/1.73m2 with >30% reduction from baseline using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or the decision to stop TDF for reported TDF-nephrotoxicity. Predictors of S-Cr monitoring rates were assessed by Poisson regression and risk factors for developing renal dysfunction were assessed by Cox regression.Among 2,425 patients who received TDF, S-Cr monitoring rates increased from 1.01 to 1.84 per person per year after starting TDF (incidence rate ratio 1.68, 95%CI 1.62-1.74, p <0.001). Renal dysfunction on TDF occurred in 103 patients over 5,368 person-years of TDF use (4.2%; incidence 1.75 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for developing renal dysfunction included older age (>50 vs. 30, hazard ratio [HR] 5.39, 95%CI 2.52-11.50, p <0.001; and using PI-based regimen (HR 1.93, 95%CI 1.22-3.07, p = 0.005). Having an eGFR prior to TDF (pre-TDF eGFR) of 60 ml/min/1.73m2 showed a protective effect (HR 0.38, 95%CI, 0.17-0.85, p = 0.018).Renal dysfunction on commencing TDF use was not common, however, older age, lower baseline eGFR and PI-based ART were associated with higher risk of renal dysfunction during TDF use in adult HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific region.
Hansudewechakul R.,Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital |
Naiwatanakul T.,GAP Thailand Asia Regional Program Thailand MOPH |
Katana A.,University of Oxford |
Faikratok W.,GAP Thailand Asia Regional Program Thailand MOPH |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2012
Introduction: Most paediatric antiretroviral treatments (ARTs) in Thailand are limited to tertiary care hospitals. To decentralize paediatric HIV treatment and care, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital (CRH) strengthened a provincial paediatric HIV care network by training community hospital (CH) care teams to receive referrals of children for community follow-up. In this study, we assessed factors associated with death and clinical outcomes of HIV-infected children who received care at CRH and CHs after implementation of a community-based paediatric HIV care network. Methods: Clinical records were abstracted for all children who initiated ART at CRH. Paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to assess CD4% and virological change among all children. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess factors associated with death. Treatment outcomes (CD4%, viral load (VL) and weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ)) were compared between CRH and CH children who met the criteria for analysis. Results: Between February 2002 and April 2008, 423 HIV-infected children initiated ART and 410 included in the cohort analysis. Median follow-up for the cohort was 28 months (interquartile range (IQR)12 to 42); 169 (41%) children were referred for follow-up at CH. As of 31 March 2008, 42 (10%) children had died. Baseline WAZ (B2 (p=0.001)) and baseline CD4% (B5% (p=0.015)) were independently associated with death. At 48 months, 86% of ART-naive children in follow-up had VLB400 copies/ml. For sub-group analysis, 133 children at CRH and 154 at CHs were included for comparison. Median baseline WAZ was lower in CH children than in CRH children (p=0.001); in both groups,WAZ, CD4% and VL improved after ART with no difference in rate of WAZ and CD4% gain (p=0.421 and 0.207, respectively). Conclusions: Children at CHs had more severe immunological suppression and low WAZ at baseline. Community- and tertiary care-based paediatric ART follow-ups result in equally beneficial outcomes with the strengthening of a provincial referral network between tertiary and community care. Nutrition interventions may benefit children in community-based HIV treatment and care. © 2012 Rawiwan Hansudewechakul et al; licensee International AIDS Society.
PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Medical Center, University of New South Wales and 12 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine | Year: 2016
About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-nave patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19years who had 6months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from-2.3 to-1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.0-2.2; p= .05). Baseline CD4+ count 200cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI= 1.2-8.9; p= .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI= 1.0-4.6; p= .05) were both associated with clinical failure.Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.
PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Childrens Hospital 2, Childrens Hospital 1 and 17 more.
Type: Editorial | Journal: Journal of virus eradication | Year: 2016
An analysis of the impact of orphanhood at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on HIV outcomes in Asia included 4300 children; 51% were male. At ART initiation, 1805 (42%) were non-orphans (median age: 3 years), 1437 (33%) were single orphans (6 years) and 1058 (25%) were double orphans (7 years). Ten-year post-ART survival was 93.4-95.2% across orphan categories. Clinic transfers were higher among single and double orphans than non-orphans (41%
Phanuphak P.,Red Cross |
Phanuphak P.,Chulalongkorn University |
Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University |
Jiamsakul A.,University of New South Wales |
And 13 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2014
BACKGROUND: We compared treatment outcomes of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in patients on fully or partially sensitive drug regimens. METHODS: Factors associated with survival and failure were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards and discrete time conditional logistic models. RESULTS: TDR, found in 60 (4.1%) of 1471 Asian treatment-naive patients, was one of the significant predictors of failure. Patients with TDR to >1 drug in their regimen were >3 times as likely to fail compared to no TDR. CONCLUSIONS: TDR was associated with failure in the context of non-fully sensitive regimens. Efforts are needed to incorporate resistance testing into national treatment programs. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, University of New South Wales, Udayana University and 14 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2016
The growth benefits of cotrimoxazole during early antiretroviral therapy (ART) are not well characterized.Individuals enrolled in the Therapeutics Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database were included if they started ART at ages 1 month-14 years and had both height and weight measurements available at ART initiation (baseline). Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with change in height-for-age z-score (HAZ), follow-up HAZ -2, change in weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), and follow-up WAZ -2.A total of 3217 children were eligible for analysis. The adjusted mean change in HAZ among cotrimoxazole and non-cotrimoxazole users did not differ significantly over the first 24 months of ART. In children who were stunted (HAZ < -2) at baseline, cotrimoxazole use was not associated with a follow-up HAZ -2. The adjusted mean change in WAZ among children with a baseline CD4 percentage (CD4%) >25% became significantly different between cotrimoxazole and non-cotrimoxazole users after 6 months of ART and remained significant after 24 months (overall P < .01). Similar changes in WAZ were observed in those with a baseline CD4% between 10% and 24% (overall P < .01). Cotrimoxazole use was not associated with a significant difference in follow-up WAZ in children with a baseline CD4% <10%. In those underweight (WAZ < -2) at baseline, cotrimoxazole use was associated with a follow-up WAZ -2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70 vs not using cotrimoxazole [95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.25], P < .01). This association was driven by children with a baseline CD4% 10%.Cotrimoxazole use is associated with benefits to WAZ but not HAZ during early ART in Asian children.
PubMed | Red Cross, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, University of New South Wales, Childrens Hospital 2 and 12 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society | Year: 2016
Regular CD4 count testing is often used to monitor antiretroviral therapy efficacy. However, this practice may be redundant in children with a suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load.Study end points were as follows: (1) a CD4 count <200 cells/mmData from 967 children were included in the analysis. At the time of confirmed viral suppression, median age was 10.2 years, 50.4% of children were female, and 95.4% were perinatally infected with HIV. Median CD4 cell count was 837 cells/mmRegular CD4 testing may be unnecessary for virally suppressed children aged 5-15 years with CD4 500 cells/mm
Pattanittum P.,Khon Kaen University |
Kunyanone N.,Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital |
Brown J.,University of Auckland |
Sangkomkamhang U.S.,Khon Kaen Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016
Background: Dysmenorrhoea refers to painful menstrual cramps and is a common gynaecological complaint. Conventional treatments include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), which both reduce myometrial activity (contractions of the uterus). A suggested alternative approach is dietary supplements. We used the term 'dietary supplement' to include herbs or other botanical, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and amino acids. We excluded traditional Chinese medicines. Objectives: To determine the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements for treating dysmenorrhoea. Search methods: We searched sources including the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycINFO (all from inception to 23 March 2015), trial registries, and the reference lists of relevant articles. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary supplements for moderate or severe primary or secondary dysmenorrhoea. We excluded studies of women with an intrauterine device. Eligible comparators were other dietary supplements, placebo, no treatment, or conventional analgesia. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently performed study selection, performed data extraction and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and adverse effects. We used a fixed-effect model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for dichotomous data, and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We presented data that were unsuitable for analysis either descriptively or in additional tables. We assessed the quality of the evidence using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. Main results: We included 27 RCTs (3101 women). Most included studies were conducted amongst cohorts of students with primary dysmenorrhoea in their late teens or early twenties. Twenty-two studies were conducted in Iran and the rest were performed in other middle-income countries. Only one study addressed secondary dysmenorrhoea. Interventions included 12 different herbal medicines (German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla, M recutita, Chamomilla recutita), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, C. verum), Damask rose (Rosa damascena), dill (Anethum graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), guava (Psidium guajava), rhubarb (Rheum emodi), uzara (Xysmalobium undulatum), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), and zataria (Zataria multiflora)) and five non-herbal supplements (fish oil, melatonin, vitamins B1 and E, and zinc sulphate) in a variety of formulations and doses. Comparators included other supplements, placebo, no treatment, and NSAIDs. We judged all the evidence to be of low or very low quality. The main limitations were imprecision due to very small sample sizes, failure to report study methods, and inconsistency. For most comparisons there was only one included study, and very few studies reported adverse effects. Effectiveness of supplements for primary dysmenorrhoea We have presented pain scores (all on a visual analogue scale (VAS) 0 to 10 point scale) or rates of pain relief, or both, at the first post-treatment follow-up. Supplements versus placebo or no treatment There was no evidence of effectiveness for vitamin E (MD 0.00 points, 95% CI -0.34 to 0.34; two RCTs, 135 women). There was no consistent evidence of effectiveness for dill (MD -1.15 points, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.08, one RCT, 46 women), guava (MD 0.59, 95% CI -0.13 to 1.31; one RCT, 151 women); one RCT, 73 women), or fennel (MD -0.34 points, 95% CI -0.74 to 0.06; one RCT, 43 women). There was very limited evidence of effectiveness for fenugreek (MD -1.71 points, 95% CI -2.35 to -1.07; one RCT, 101 women), fish oil (MD 1.11 points, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77; one RCT, 120 women), fish oil plus vitamin B1 (MD -1.21 points, 95% CI -1.79 to -0.63; one RCT, 120 women), ginger (MD -1.55 points, 95% CI -2.43 to -0.68; three RCTs, 266 women; OR 5.44, 95% CI 1.80 to 16.46; one RCT, 69 women), valerian (MD -0.76 points, 95% CI -1.44 to -0.08; one RCT, 100 women), vitamin B1 alone (MD -2.70 points, 95% CI -3.32 to -2.08; one RCT, 120 women), zataria (OR 6.66, 95% CI 2.66 to 16.72; one RCT, 99 women), and zinc sulphate (MD -0.95 points, 95% CI -1.54 to -0.36; one RCT, 99 women). Data on chamomile and cinnamon versus placebo were unsuitable for analysis. Supplements versus NSAIDS There was no evidence of any difference between NSAIDs and dill (MD 0.13 points, 95% CI -1.01 to 1.27; one RCT, 47 women), fennel (MD -0.70 points, 95% CI -1.81 to 0.41; one RCT, 59 women), guava (MD 1.19, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.96; one RCT, 155 women), rhubarb (MD -0.20 points, 95% CI -0.44 to 0.04; one RCT, 45 women), or valerian (MD points 0.62, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.21; one RCT, 99 women), There was no consistent evidence of a difference between Damask rose and NSAIDs (MD -0.15 points, 95% CI -0.55 to 0.25; one RCT, 92 women). There was very limited evidence that chamomile was more effective than NSAIDs (MD -1.42 points, 95% CI -1.69 to -1.15; one RCT, 160 women). Supplements versus other supplements There was no evidence of a difference in effectiveness between ginger and zinc sulphate (MD 0.02 points, 95% CI -0.58 to 0.62; one RCT, 101 women). Vitamin B1 may be more effective than fish oil (MD -1.59 points, 95% CI -2.25 to -0.93; one RCT, 120 women). Effectiveness of supplements for secondary dysmenorrhoea There was no strong evidence of benefit for melatonin compared to placebo for dysmenorrhoea secondary to endometriosis (data were unsuitable for analysis). Safety of supplements Only four of the 27 included studies reported adverse effects in both treatment groups. There was no evidence of a difference between the groups but data were too scanty to reach any conclusions about safety. Authors' conclusions: There is no high quality evidence to support the effectiveness of any dietary supplement for dysmenorrhoea, and evidence of safety is lacking. However for several supplements there was some low quality evidence of effectiveness and more research is justified. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chanta C.,Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital |
Phloenchaiwanit P.,Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand | Year: 2015
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of azithromycin for treatment of uncomplicated pediatric scrub typhus. Material and Method: A randomized controlled trial was performed. We compared azithromycin with doxycycline or chloramphenicol in uncomplicated pediatric scrub typhus from inpatient pediatric department of Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital. The primary outcome was cure rate at day 3. The secondary outcomes were timing to defervescence within 72 hours, side effects, and relapsed rate. We compared data between both groups with Fisher’s exact test or Mann-Whitney U test, and failure rate was demonstrated by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Log-rank test. Results: We included 57 patients, of whom, 28 were assigned to doxycycline or chloramphenicol (control group) and 29 to azithromycin (study group). The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. The cure rate was 85.7% in the doxycycline or chloramphenicol group, as compared to 79.3% in the azithromycin group (p = 0.73), and a median time to defervescence was 30 hours (IQR 21, 48) vs. 36 hours (IQR 20, 68) respectively (p = 0.166). There was a little minor side effect in azithromycin group. No relapsed was found in either groups. Conclusion: Azithromycin was as effective as doxycycline or chloramphenicol in treatment of uncomplicated pediatric scrub typhus. © 2015, Medical Association of Thailand. All rights reserved.