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Chiang Rai, Thailand

Kiertiburanakul S.,Mahidol University | Chaiwarith R.,Chiang Mai University | Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University | Ditangco R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:The emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) has raised concerns after rapid global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are limited data on the epidemiology of primary HIVDR in resource-limited settings in Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and compare the distribution of HIVDR in a cohort of ART-naïve Asian patients with recent and chronic HIV-1 infection.Methods:Multicenter prospective study was conducted in ART-naïve patients between 2007 and 2010. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were assessed using the World Health Organization 2009 list for surveillance of primary HIVDR.Results:A total of 458 patients with recent and 1,340 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 4.6%. Recently infected patients had a higher prevalence of primary HIVDR (6.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.065) and frequencies of RAMs to protease inhibitors (PIs; 3.9% vs. 1.0%, p<0.001). Among those with recent infection, the most common RAMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were M184I/V and T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (1.1%), to non-NRTIs was Y181C (1.3%), and to PIs was M46I (1.5%). Of patients with chronic infection, T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (0.8%; NRTI), Y181C (0.5%; non-NRTI), and M46I (0.4%; PI) were the most common RAMs. K70R (p = 0.016) and M46I (p = 0.026) were found more frequently among recently infected patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with chronic infection, heterosexual contact as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection was less likely to be associated with primary HIVDR compared to other risk categories (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.59, p<0.001).Conclusions:The prevalence of primary HIVDR was higher among patients with recent than chronic HIV-1 infection in our cohort, but of borderline statistical significance. Chronically infected patients with non-heterosexual risks for HIV were more likely to have primary HIVDR. © 2013 Kiertiburanakul et al.

Sungkanuparph S.,Mahidol University | Oyomopito R.,University of New South Wales | Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University | Sirisanthana T.,Research Institute for Health science | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

(See editorial commentary by Jordan on pages 1058-1060.)Of 682 antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, multicenter human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance monitoring study involving 8 sites in Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand, the prevalence of patients with ≥1 drug resistance mutation was 13.8%. Primary HIV drug resistance is emerging after rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy use in Asia. © 2011 The Author.

Aung M.N.,Juntendo University | Yuasa M.,Juntendo University | Moolphate S.,TB HIV Research Consortium | Nedsuwan S.,Chiang Rai Regional Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Trials | Year: 2012

Background: Decreasing salt consumption can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Practically, it is difficult to promote people's awareness of daily salt intake and to change their eating habits in terms of reducing salt intake for better cardiovascular health. Health education programs visualizing daily dietary salt content and intake may promote lifestyle changes in patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases.Methods/Design: This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 800 high-CVD-risk patients attending diabetes and hypertension clinics at health centers in Muang District, Chiang Rai province, Thailand, will be studied with informed consent. A health center recruiting 100 participants is a cluster, the unit of randomization. Eight clusters will be randomized into intervention and control arms and followed up for 1 year. Within the intervention clusters the following will be undertaken: (1) salt content in the daily diet will be measured and shown to study participants; (2) 24-hour salt intake will be estimated in overnight-collected urine and the results shown to the participants; (3) a dietician will assist small group health education classes in cooking meals with less salt. The primary outcome is blood pressure change at the 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes at the 1-year follow-up are estimated 24-hoursalt intake, incidence of CVD events and CVD death. The intention-to-treat analysis will be followed.Blood pressure and estimated 24-hour salt intake will be compared between intervention and control groups at the cluster and individual level at the 1-year follow-up. Clinical CVD events and deaths will be analyzed by time-event analysis. Retinal blood vessel calibers of CVD-risk patients will be assessed cross-sectionally. Behavioral change to reduce salt intake and the influencing factors will be determined by structured equation model (SEM). Multilevel regression analyses will be applied. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the intervention will be analyzed.Discussion: This study is unique as it will recruit the individuals most vulnerable to CVD morbidity and mortality by applying the general Framingham CVD risk scoring system. Dietary salt reduction will be applied as a prioritized, community level intervention for the prevention of CVD in a developing country.Trial registration: ISRCTN39416277. © 2012 Aung et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Puthanakit T.,Thailand Research Collaboration HIV National | Puthanakit T.,Chulalongkorn University | Puthanakit T.,Chiang Mai University | Jourdain G.,Chiang Mai University | And 13 more authors.
HIV Medicine | Year: 2010

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, predictors and patterns of genotypic resistance mutations in children after failure of World Health Organization-recommended initial nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based treatment regimens. Methods: We carried out a multicentre retrospective study of genotyping tests performed for all HIV-infected children at eight paediatric centres in Thailand who experienced failure of NNRTI therapy at a time when virological monitoring was not routinely available. Results: One hundred and twenty children were included in the study. Their median age (interquartile range) was 9.1 (6.8-11.0) years, the median duration of their NNRTI regimens was 23.7 (15.7-32.6) months, their median CD4 percentage was 12% (4-20%), and their median plasma HIV RNA at the time of genotype testing was 4.8 (4.3-5.2) log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance mutations found were as follows: 85% of the children had M184V/I, 23% had at least four thymidine analogue mutations, 12% had the Q151M complex, 5% had K65R, and 1% had the 69 insertion. Ninety-eight per cent of the children had at least one NNRTI resistance mutation, and 48% had etravirine mutation-weighted scores ≥4. CD4 percentage <15% prior to switching regimens [odds ratio (OR) 5.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-14.93] and plasma HIV RNA>5 log10 copies/mL (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.04-5.82) were independent predictors of at least four thymidine analogue mutations, the Q151M complex or the 69 insertion. Conclusions: In settings without routine viral load monitoring, second-line antiretroviral therapy regimens should be designed assuming that clinical or immunological failure is associated with high rates of multi-NRTI resistance and NNRTI resistance, including resistance to etravirine. © 2010 British HIV Association.

Oyomopito R.A.,University of New South Wales | Li P.C.K.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Sungkanuparph S.,Mahidol University | Phanuphak P.,Red Cross | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

Background: HIV-1 group M viruses diverge 25%-35% in envelope, important for viral attachment during infection, and 10%-15% in the pol region, under selection pressure from common antiretrovirals. In Asia, subtypes B and CRF01-AE are common genotypes. Our objectives were to determine whether clinical, immunological, or virological treatment responses differed by genotype in treatmentnaive patients initiating first-line therapy. Methods: Prospectively collected longitudinal data from patients in Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea were provided for analysis. Covariates included demographics, hepatitis B and C coinfections, baseline CD4 T lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Clinical deterioration (a new diagnosis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category B/AIDS-defining illness or death) was assessed by proportional hazards models. Surrogate endpoints were 12-month change in CD4 cell count and virologic suppression post therapy, evaluated by linear and logistic regression, respectively. Results: Of 1105 patients, 1036 (93.8%) infected with CRF01-AE or subtype B were eligible for inclusion in clinical deterioration analyses and contributed 1546.7 person-years of follow-up (median: 413 days, interquartile range: 169-672 days). Patients > 40 years demonstrated smaller immunological increases (P = 0.002) and higher risk of clinical deterioration (hazard ratio = 2.17; P = 0.008). Patients with baseline CD4 cell counts > 200 cells per microliter had lower risk of clinical deterioration (hazard ratio = 0.373; P = 0.003). A total of 532 patients (48.1% of eligible) had CD4 counts available at baseline and 12 months post therapy for inclusion in immunolgic analyses. Patients infected with subtype B had larger increases in CD4 counts at 12 months (P = 0.024). A total of 530 patients (48.0% of eligible) were included in virological analyses with no differences in response found between genotypes. Conclusions: Results suggest that patients infected with CRF01-AE have reduced immunologic response to therapy at 12 months, compared with subtype B-infected counterparts. Clinical deterioration was associated with low baseline CD4 counts and older age. The lack of differences in virologic outcomes suggests that all patients have opportunities for virological suppression. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

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