Chiang Rai Regional Hospital

Chiang Rai, Thailand

Chiang Rai Regional Hospital

Chiang Rai, Thailand
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Prathanee B.,Khon Kaen University | Lorwatanapongsa P.,Chulalongkorn University | Makarabhirom K.,Chiang Rai Regional Hospital | Wattanawongsawang W.,Mahidol University
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand | Year: 2010

Objective: To create a Thai speech and language assessment tool and norms for children between 21/2 and 4 years of age (TSLT21/2-4). Material and Method: The Thai speech and language assessment tool was created for children between 21/2 and 4 years of age using existing Thai and English speech and language development theory, research results and tests. In order to validate the norms, the speech and language skills were prospectively assessed in 4,169 normal children representing the five regions of Thailand. Language quotients, percentiles and Conbrach's Alpha coefficients were calculated for use as a reference for Thai language development norms. Results: Speech and language norms for children age 21/2-4 years were presented. Most of the Cronbach's Alpha coefficients were good (equal or more than 70%). Conclusion: The Thai speech and language assessment tools and norms are useful for the assessment of speech and language for children with risk for delayed speech and language development (e.g., individuals with cleft lip and palate, global development delay, autism) in Thailand. The norms can also provide the guideline for "intervention planning".


Kiertiburanakul S.,Mahidol University | Chaiwarith R.,Chiang Mai University | Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University | Ditangco R.,Institute of Tropical Medicine | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:The emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) has raised concerns after rapid global antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are limited data on the epidemiology of primary HIVDR in resource-limited settings in Asia. We aimed to determine the prevalence and compare the distribution of HIVDR in a cohort of ART-naïve Asian patients with recent and chronic HIV-1 infection.Methods:Multicenter prospective study was conducted in ART-naïve patients between 2007 and 2010. Resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) were assessed using the World Health Organization 2009 list for surveillance of primary HIVDR.Results:A total of 458 patients with recent and 1,340 patients with chronic HIV-1 infection were included in the analysis. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 4.6%. Recently infected patients had a higher prevalence of primary HIVDR (6.1% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.065) and frequencies of RAMs to protease inhibitors (PIs; 3.9% vs. 1.0%, p<0.001). Among those with recent infection, the most common RAMs to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were M184I/V and T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (1.1%), to non-NRTIs was Y181C (1.3%), and to PIs was M46I (1.5%). Of patients with chronic infection, T215D/E/F/I/S/Y (0.8%; NRTI), Y181C (0.5%; non-NRTI), and M46I (0.4%; PI) were the most common RAMs. K70R (p = 0.016) and M46I (p = 0.026) were found more frequently among recently infected patients. In multivariate logistic regression analysis in patients with chronic infection, heterosexual contact as a risk factor for HIV-1 infection was less likely to be associated with primary HIVDR compared to other risk categories (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.20-0.59, p<0.001).Conclusions:The prevalence of primary HIVDR was higher among patients with recent than chronic HIV-1 infection in our cohort, but of borderline statistical significance. Chronically infected patients with non-heterosexual risks for HIV were more likely to have primary HIVDR. © 2013 Kiertiburanakul et al.


Sungkanuparph S.,Mahidol University | Sungkanuparph S.,Ramathibodi Hospital | Oyomopito R.,University of New South Wales | Sirivichayakul S.,Chulalongkorn University | And 8 more authors.
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

(See editorial commentary by Jordan on pages 1058-1060.)Of 682 antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, multicenter human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance monitoring study involving 8 sites in Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand, the prevalence of patients with ≥1 drug resistance mutation was 13.8%. Primary HIV drug resistance is emerging after rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy use in Asia. © 2011 The Author.


Aung M.N.,Juntendo University | Yuasa M.,Juntendo University | Moolphate S.,TB HIV Research Consortium | Nedsuwan S.,Chiang Rai Regional Hospital | And 9 more authors.
Trials | Year: 2012

Background: Decreasing salt consumption can prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Practically, it is difficult to promote people's awareness of daily salt intake and to change their eating habits in terms of reducing salt intake for better cardiovascular health. Health education programs visualizing daily dietary salt content and intake may promote lifestyle changes in patients at high risk of cardiovascular diseases.Methods/Design: This is a cluster randomized trial. A total of 800 high-CVD-risk patients attending diabetes and hypertension clinics at health centers in Muang District, Chiang Rai province, Thailand, will be studied with informed consent. A health center recruiting 100 participants is a cluster, the unit of randomization. Eight clusters will be randomized into intervention and control arms and followed up for 1 year. Within the intervention clusters the following will be undertaken: (1) salt content in the daily diet will be measured and shown to study participants; (2) 24-hour salt intake will be estimated in overnight-collected urine and the results shown to the participants; (3) a dietician will assist small group health education classes in cooking meals with less salt. The primary outcome is blood pressure change at the 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes at the 1-year follow-up are estimated 24-hoursalt intake, incidence of CVD events and CVD death. The intention-to-treat analysis will be followed.Blood pressure and estimated 24-hour salt intake will be compared between intervention and control groups at the cluster and individual level at the 1-year follow-up. Clinical CVD events and deaths will be analyzed by time-event analysis. Retinal blood vessel calibers of CVD-risk patients will be assessed cross-sectionally. Behavioral change to reduce salt intake and the influencing factors will be determined by structured equation model (SEM). Multilevel regression analyses will be applied. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the intervention will be analyzed.Discussion: This study is unique as it will recruit the individuals most vulnerable to CVD morbidity and mortality by applying the general Framingham CVD risk scoring system. Dietary salt reduction will be applied as a prioritized, community level intervention for the prevention of CVD in a developing country.Trial registration: ISRCTN39416277. © 2012 Aung et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Wang L.,University of Alberta | Mohammad S.H.,University of Alberta | Chaiyasirinroje B.,TB HIV Research Foundation | Li Q.,University of Alberta | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

There is an urgent need for simple, rapid, and affordable diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) to combat the great burden of the disease in developing countries. The microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS) is a promising tool to fill this need, but it is not widely used due to concerns regarding its biosafety and efficiency. This study evaluated the automated MODS (Auto-MODS), which operates on principles similar to those of MODS but with several key modifications, making it an appealing alternative to MODS in resource-limited settings. In the operational setting of Chiang Rai, Thailand, we compared the performance of Auto-MODS with the gold standard liquid culture method in Thailand, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 plus the SD Bioline TB Ag MPT64 test, in terms of accuracy and efficiency in differentiating TB and non-TB samples as well as distinguishing TB and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB samples. Sputum samples from clinically diagnosed TB and non-TB subjects across 17 hospitals in Chiang Rai were consecutively collected from May 2011 to September 2012. A total of 360 samples were available for evaluation, of which 221 (61.4%) were positive and 139 (38.6%) were negative for mycobacterial cultures according to MGIT 960. Of the 221 true-positive samples, Auto-MODS identified 212 as positive and 9 as negative (sensitivity, 95.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 92.4% to 98.1%). Of the 139 true-negative samples, Auto-MODS identified 135 as negative and 4 as positive (specificity, 97.1%; 95% CI, 92.8% to 99.2%). The median time to culture positivity was 10 days, with an interquartile range of 8 to 13 days for Auto-MODS. Auto-MODS is an effective and cost-sensitive alternative diagnostic tool for TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Kittikraisak W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Kingkaew P.,Ministry of Public Health | Teerawattananon Y.,Ministry of Public Health | Yothasamut J.,Ministry of Public Health | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Introduction: Health utilities of tuberculosis (TB) patients may be diminished by side effects from medication, prolonged treatment duration, physical effects of the disease itself, and social stigma attached to the disease. Methods: We collected health utility data from Thai patients who were on TB treatment or had been successfully treated for TB for the purpose of economic modeling. Structured questionnaire and EuroQol (EQ-5D) and EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) instruments were used as data collection tools. We compared utility of patients with two co-morbidities calculated using multiplicative model (UCAL) with the direct measures and fitted Tobit regression models to examine factors predictive of health utility and to assess difference in health utilities of patients in various medical conditions. Results: Of 222 patients analyzed, 138 (62%) were male; median age at enrollment was 40 years (interquartile range [IQR], 35-47). Median monthly household income was 6,000 Baht (187 US$ IQR, 4,000-15,000 Baht [125-469 US$]). Concordance correlation coefficient between utilities measured using EQ-5D and EQ-VAS (UEQ-5D and UVAS, respectively) was 0.6. UCAL for HIV-infected TB patients was statistically different from the measured UEQ-5D (p-value<0.01) and UVAS (p-value<0.01). In tobit regression analysis, factors independently predictive of UEQ-5D included age and monthly household income. Patients aged ≥40 years old rated UEQ-5D significantly lower than younger persons. Higher UEQ-5D was significantly associated with higher monthly household income in a dose response fashion. The median UEQ-5D was highest among patients who had been successfully treated for TB and lowest among multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients who were on treatment. Conclusions: UCAL of patients with two co-morbidities overestimated the measured utilities, warranting further research of how best to estimate utilities of patients with such conditions. TB and MDR-TB treatments impacted on patients' self perceived health status. This effect diminished after successful treatment.


Chaiyasirinroje B.,TB HIV Research Project | Aung M.N.,Juntendo University | Moolphate S.,TB HIV Research Project | Moolphate S.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis RIT | And 9 more authors.
Infection and Drug Resistance | Year: 2012

Background and setting: Thailand is one of the highest tuberculosis (TB)-burdened countries. Chiang Rai, the northernmost province of Thailand has high tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and the laboratory workload for TB culture and drug susceptibility testing is increasing. Objectives: To evaluate the simply modified microscopic-observation drug-susceptibility assay (MODS) in the setting of a developing country. Methods: In this cross-sectional diagnostic study, a total of 202 sputum samples of clinically diagnosed TB patients were used to test the performance of MODS assay in reference to gold standard BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 liquid culture system and Ogawa solid culture. Sputum samples were collected from clinically diagnosed TB patients. Culture growth rate and time to culture positivity were compared among three methods. Performance of modified MODS assay was evaluated for detection of mycobacterium drug resistance in reference to MGIT antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST). Result: Median time to culture positivity by MODS, solid, and liquid culture were 12, 30, and 6 days respectively. Compared to the drug susceptibility test (DST) result of reference liquid culture, the sensitivity and specificity of MODS for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was 85.7% and 97.5% respectively. MODS assay has a positive predicative value of 80% and negative predictive value of 96.5% for isoniazid resistance, 70% and 100% for rifampicin resistance, and 66.7% and 99.1% for MDR-TB. Conclusion: MODS is a highly effective screening test for detection of MDR-TB. © 2012 Chaiyasirinroje et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Oyomopito R.A.,University of New South Wales | Li P.C.K.,Queen Elizabeth Hospital | Sungkanuparph S.,Mahidol University | Phanuphak P.,Red Cross | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2013

Background: HIV-1 group M viruses diverge 25%-35% in envelope, important for viral attachment during infection, and 10%-15% in the pol region, under selection pressure from common antiretrovirals. In Asia, subtypes B and CRF01-AE are common genotypes. Our objectives were to determine whether clinical, immunological, or virological treatment responses differed by genotype in treatmentnaive patients initiating first-line therapy. Methods: Prospectively collected longitudinal data from patients in Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea were provided for analysis. Covariates included demographics, hepatitis B and C coinfections, baseline CD4 T lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Clinical deterioration (a new diagnosis of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category B/AIDS-defining illness or death) was assessed by proportional hazards models. Surrogate endpoints were 12-month change in CD4 cell count and virologic suppression post therapy, evaluated by linear and logistic regression, respectively. Results: Of 1105 patients, 1036 (93.8%) infected with CRF01-AE or subtype B were eligible for inclusion in clinical deterioration analyses and contributed 1546.7 person-years of follow-up (median: 413 days, interquartile range: 169-672 days). Patients > 40 years demonstrated smaller immunological increases (P = 0.002) and higher risk of clinical deterioration (hazard ratio = 2.17; P = 0.008). Patients with baseline CD4 cell counts > 200 cells per microliter had lower risk of clinical deterioration (hazard ratio = 0.373; P = 0.003). A total of 532 patients (48.1% of eligible) had CD4 counts available at baseline and 12 months post therapy for inclusion in immunolgic analyses. Patients infected with subtype B had larger increases in CD4 counts at 12 months (P = 0.024). A total of 530 patients (48.0% of eligible) were included in virological analyses with no differences in response found between genotypes. Conclusions: Results suggest that patients infected with CRF01-AE have reduced immunologic response to therapy at 12 months, compared with subtype B-infected counterparts. Clinical deterioration was associated with low baseline CD4 counts and older age. The lack of differences in virologic outcomes suggests that all patients have opportunities for virological suppression. Copyright © 2012 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.


Puthanakit T.,Thailand Research Collaboration HIV National | Puthanakit T.,Chulalongkorn University | Puthanakit T.,Chiang Mai University | Jourdain G.,Chiang Mai University | And 13 more authors.
HIV Medicine | Year: 2010

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence, predictors and patterns of genotypic resistance mutations in children after failure of World Health Organization-recommended initial nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based treatment regimens. Methods: We carried out a multicentre retrospective study of genotyping tests performed for all HIV-infected children at eight paediatric centres in Thailand who experienced failure of NNRTI therapy at a time when virological monitoring was not routinely available. Results: One hundred and twenty children were included in the study. Their median age (interquartile range) was 9.1 (6.8-11.0) years, the median duration of their NNRTI regimens was 23.7 (15.7-32.6) months, their median CD4 percentage was 12% (4-20%), and their median plasma HIV RNA at the time of genotype testing was 4.8 (4.3-5.2) log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance mutations found were as follows: 85% of the children had M184V/I, 23% had at least four thymidine analogue mutations, 12% had the Q151M complex, 5% had K65R, and 1% had the 69 insertion. Ninety-eight per cent of the children had at least one NNRTI resistance mutation, and 48% had etravirine mutation-weighted scores ≥4. CD4 percentage <15% prior to switching regimens [odds ratio (OR) 5.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.02-14.93] and plasma HIV RNA>5 log10 copies/mL (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.04-5.82) were independent predictors of at least four thymidine analogue mutations, the Q151M complex or the 69 insertion. Conclusions: In settings without routine viral load monitoring, second-line antiretroviral therapy regimens should be designed assuming that clinical or immunological failure is associated with high rates of multi-NRTI resistance and NNRTI resistance, including resistance to etravirine. © 2010 British HIV Association.


PubMed | University of Alberta, Supra National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital and TB HIV Research Foundation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology | Year: 2014

There is an urgent need for simple, rapid, and affordable diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB) to combat the great burden of the disease in developing countries. The microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS) is a promising tool to fill this need, but it is not widely used due to concerns regarding its biosafety and efficiency. This study evaluated the automated MODS (Auto-MODS), which operates on principles similar to those of MODS but with several key modifications, making it an appealing alternative to MODS in resource-limited settings. In the operational setting of Chiang Rai, Thailand, we compared the performance of Auto-MODS with the gold standard liquid culture method in Thailand, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 plus the SD Bioline TB Ag MPT64 test, in terms of accuracy and efficiency in differentiating TB and non-TB samples as well as distinguishing TB and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB samples. Sputum samples from clinically diagnosed TB and non-TB subjects across 17 hospitals in Chiang Rai were consecutively collected from May 2011 to September 2012. A total of 360 samples were available for evaluation, of which 221 (61.4%) were positive and 139 (38.6%) were negative for mycobacterial cultures according to MGIT 960. Of the 221 true-positive samples, Auto-MODS identified 212 as positive and 9 as negative (sensitivity, 95.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 92.4% to 98.1%). Of the 139 true-negative samples, Auto-MODS identified 135 as negative and 4 as positive (specificity, 97.1%; 95% CI, 92.8% to 99.2%). The median time to culture positivity was 10 days, with an interquartile range of 8 to 13 days for Auto-MODS. Auto-MODS is an effective and cost-sensitive alternative diagnostic tool for TB diagnosis in resource-limited settings.

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