Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital

Chiang Rai, Thailand

Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital

Chiang Rai, Thailand
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Louthrenoo W.,Chiang Mai University | Jatuworapruk K.,Chiang Mai University | Jatuworapruk K.,Thammasat University | Lhakum P.,Chiang Mai University | And 2 more authors.
Rheumatology International | Year: 2017

To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the 2015 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) gout classification criteria in Thai patients presenting with acute arthritis in a real-life setting. Data were analyzed on consecutive patients presenting with arthritis of less than 2 weeks duration. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by using the presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid or tissue aspirate as gold standard for gout diagnosis. Subgroup analysis was performed in patients with early disease (≤2 years), established disease (>2 years), and those without tophus. Additional analysis also was performed in non-tophaceous gout patients, and patients with acute calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal arthritis were used as controls. One hundred and nine gout and 74 non-gout patients participated in this study. Full ACR/EULAR classification criteria had sensitivity and specificity of 90.2 and 90.0%, respectively; and 90.2 and 85.0%, respectively, when synovial fluid microscopy was excluded. Clinical-only criteria yielded sensitivity and specificity of 79.8 and 87.8%, respectively. The criteria performed well among patients with early and non-tophaceous disease, but had lower specificity in patients with established disease. The variation of serum uric acid level was a major limitation of the classification criteria. The ACR/EULAR classification criteria had high sensitivity and specificity in Thai patients presenting with acute arthritis, even when clinical criteria alone were used. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


PubMed | Red Cross, Research Institute for Health science, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital and 19 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes.Patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database receiving first-line ART for 6 months were included. Predictors of treatment failure and treatment modification were assessed.Data from 4662 eligible patients was analysed. Patients started ART in 2003-2006 (n = 1419), 2007-2010 (n = 2690) and 2011-2013 (n = 553). During the observation period, tenofovir, zidovudine and abacavir use largely replaced stavudine. Stavudine was prescribed to 5.8% of ART starters in 2012/13. Efavirenz use increased at the expense of nevirapine, although both continue to be used extensively (47.5% and 34.5% of patients in 2012/13, respectively). Protease inhibitor use dropped after 2004. The rate of treatment failure or modification declined over time (22.1 [95%CI 20.7-23.5] events per 100 patient/years in 2003-2006, 15.8 [14.9-16.8] in 2007-2010, and 11.6 [9.4-14.2] in 2011-2013). Adjustment for ART regimen had little impact on the temporal decline in treatment failure rates but substantially attenuated the temporal decline in rates of modification due to adverse event. In the final multivariate model, treatment modification due to adverse event was significantly predicted by earlier period of ART initiation (hazard ratio 0.52 [95%CI 0.33-0.81], p = 0.004 for 2011-2013 versus 2003-2006), older age (1.56 [1.19-2.04], p = 0.001 for 50 years versus <30 years), female sex (1.29 [1.11-1.50], p = 0.001 versus male), positive hepatitis C status (1.33 [1.06-1.66], p = 0.013 versus negative), and ART regimen (11.36 [6.28-20.54], p<0.001 for stavudine-based regimens versus tenofovir-based).The observed trends in first-line ART use in Asia reflect changes in drug availability, global treatment recommendations and prescriber preferences over the past decade. These changes have contributed to a declining rate of treatment modification due to adverse event, but not to reductions in treatment failure.


Kantipong P.,Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital | Murakami K.,Japan Research Institute of Tuberculosis | Moolphate S.,TB HIV Research Project | Aung M.N.,Juntendo University | And 2 more authors.
HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care | Year: 2012

Background: The case fatality rate in patients with tuberculosis (TB) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been particularly high in Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. It was almost 50% before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the last decade, and was still at 28% in 2008, despite expanding access to antiretroviral therapy. Reviewing the causes of death may lead to further understanding of the timeline and natural history of TB-HIV coinfection, and in so doing help to devise an effective prevention strategy in Chiang Rai. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of confirmed causes of death in patients coinfected with TB and HIV in Chiang Rai, describe the causes of such deaths along the timeline of TB treatment, and identify predictors of each cause of death. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the causes of death for 331 patients who died of TB-HIV coinfection at Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital from 2005 to 2008. Causes of death were confirmed by reviewing medical records, vital registration, and the TB register in the province, as well as obtaining reconfirmation by two experienced HIV physicians. Results: The confrmed causes of death were TB (39%), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related opportunistic infections other than TB (AOI) (29%), and other systemic diseases which were neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (nonTB-nonAOI) (16%). The definitive cause could not be confirmed in the remaining 16% of deaths. After starting the TB treatment, deaths caused by TB occurred earlier compared with deaths caused by AOI, which occurred steadily throughout the course of TB treatment, whilst deaths caused by non-TB-nonAOI increased gradually in later months. Further analysis by multivariate multinomial regression analysis showed that deaths in the first month (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.49-8.63), CD4 count > 200 cells/mm3 (aOR 5.33, CI 1.05-26.10), non-category 1 TB treatment regimens (aOR 5.23, CI 1.04-9.77), and TB meningitis (aOR 3.27, CI 1.37-7.82) were significant predictors of confirmed TB deaths. Moreover, age over 45 years (aOR 3, CI 1.32-6.84) and admission as an inpatient were predictors of death caused by neither TB nor AIDS-related opportunistic infections (aOR 3.08, CI 1.39-6.80). Additional analysis showed that non-Thai patients (aOR 0.35, CI 0.12-0.99), those with an unknown CD4 count at TB diagnosis (aOR 0.16, CI 0.08-0.33), and those with-out an HIV diagnosis before TB treatment (aOR 0.32, CI 0.18-0.59) were less able to access antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: The timeline and predictors of causes of death may assist in devising an intervention strategy for further reduction of the TB-HIV case fatality rate. © 2012 Kantipong et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Sriwongpan P.,Chiang Mai University | Sriwongpan P.,Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital | Krittigamas P.,Nakornping Hospital | Kantipong P.,Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy | Year: 2013

Background: The study explored clinical risk characteristics that may be used to forecast scrub typhus severity under routine clinical practices. Methods: Retrospective data were collected from patients registered at two university-affiliated tertiary care hospitals in the north of Thailand, from 2004 to 2010. Key information was retrieved from in-patient records, out patient cards, laboratory reports and registers. Patients were classified into three severity groups: nonsevere, severe (those with at least one organ involvement), and deceased. Prognostic characteristics for scrub typhus severity were analyzed by a multivariable ordinal continuation ratio regression. Results: A total of 526 patients were classified into nonsevere (n = 357), severe (n = 100), and deceased (n = 69). The significant multivariable prognostic characteristics for scrub typhus severity were increased body temperature (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.45-0.74, P < 0.001), increased pulse rate (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05, P < 0.001), presence of crepitation (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.52-6.96, P =0.001) increased percentage of lymphocytes (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, P = 0.001), increased aspartate aminotransferase (every 10 IU/L) (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06, P=0.001), increased serum albumin (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27-0.80, P = 0.001), increased serum creatinine (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.50-2.24, P < 0.01), and increased levels of positive urine albumin (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.17-1.75, P< 0.001). Conclusion: Patients suspicious of scrub typhus with low body temperature, rapid pulse rate, presence of crepitation, low percentage of lymphocyte, low serum albumin, elevated aspartate aminotransferase, elevated serum creatinine, and positive urine albumin should be monitored closely for severity progression. © 2013 Sriwongpan etal.


Panyasai S.,University of Phayao | Thongsuk P.,Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital | Pornprasert S.,Chiang Mai University
Hemoglobin | Year: 2016

Hb Agenogi [β90(F6)Glu→Lys (GAG>AAG) HBB: c.271G>A)] is a very rare β-globin chain variant. We report for the first time this hemoglobinopathy in a pregnant 20-year-old Thai woman. She was seen by an obstetrician at her 14th week of gestation. She was pale and had an inflammatory lesion of her lower left leg. The hemoglobin (Hb) analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) showed a peak of abnormal Hb at the C window. On capillary electrophoresis (CE), the abnormal Hb peak was observed at electrophoretic zone 4 that corresponded to the Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) peak. Direct DNA sequencing revealed a GAG>AAG mutation at codon 90 of the β-globin gene. Thus, even though Hb Agenogi is very rare, it can be found in Thai people. The knowledge and understanding of this hemoglobinopathy will be used to assist in diagnosis, management and counseling for patients. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Mai University and University of Phayao
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Hemoglobin | Year: 2016

Hb Agenogi [90(F6)GluLys (GAG>AAG) HBB: c.271G>A)] is a very rare -globin chain variant. We report for the first time this hemoglobinopathy in a pregnant 20-year-old Thai woman. She was seen by an obstetrician at her 14th week of gestation. She was pale and had an inflammatory lesion of her lower left leg. The hemoglobin (Hb) analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) showed a peak of abnormal Hb at the C window. On capillary electrophoresis (CE), the abnormal Hb peak was observed at electrophoretic zone 4 that corresponded to the Hb E (HBB: c.79G>A) peak. Direct DNA sequencing revealed a GAG>AAG mutation at codon 90 of the -globin gene. Thus, even though Hb Agenogi is very rare, it can be found in Thai people. The knowledge and understanding of this hemoglobinopathy will be used to assist in diagnosis, management and counseling for patients.


Lim C.,Mahidol University | Blacksell S.D.,Mahidol University | Blacksell S.D.,University of Oxford | Laongnualpanich A.,Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

We determined the optimal cutoff titers in admission and convalescent-phase samples for scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence assay using Bayesian latent class models. Cutoff titers of>1:3,200 in an admission sample or of a>4-fold rise to>1:3,200 in a convalescent-phase sample provided the highest accuracy (sensitivity, 81.6%; specificity, 100%). Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Mahidol University, University of Oxford and Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

The indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is considered a reference test for scrub typhus. Recently, the Scrub Typhus Infection Criteria (STIC; a combination of culture, PCR assays and IFA IgM) were proposed as a reference standard for evaluating alternative diagnostic tests. Here, we use Bayesian latent class models (LCMs) to estimate the true accuracy of each diagnostic test, and of STIC, for diagnosing scrub typhus.Data from 161 patients with undifferentiated fever were re-evaluated using Bayesian LCMs. Every patient was evaluated for the presence of an eschar, and tested with blood culture for Orientia tsutsugamushi, three different PCR assays, IFA IgM, and the Panbio IgM immunochromatographic test (ICT). True sensitivity and specificity of culture (24.4% and 100%), 56kDa PCR assay (56.8% and 98.4%), 47kDa PCR assay (63.2% and 96.1%), groEL PCR assay (71.4% and 93.0%), IFA IgM (70.0% and 83.8%), PanBio IgM ICT (72.8% and 96.8%), presence of eschar (42.7% and 98.9%) and STIC (90.5% and 82.5%) estimated by Bayesian LCM were considerably different from those obtained when using STIC as a reference standard. The IgM ICT had comparable sensitivity and significantly higher specificity compared to IFA (p=0.34 and p<0.001, respectively).The low specificity of STIC was caused by the low specificity of IFA IgM. Neither STIC nor IFA IgM can be used as reference standards against which to evaluate alternative diagnostic tests. Further evaluation of new diagnostic tests should be done with a carefully selected set of diagnostic tests and appropriate statistical models.


PubMed | Mahidol University, University of Oxford and Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology | Year: 2015

We determined the optimal cutoff titers in admission and convalescent-phase samples for scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence assay using Bayesian latent class models. Cutoff titers of 1:3,200 in an admission sample or of a 4-fold rise to 1:3,200 in a convalescent-phase sample provided the highest accuracy (sensitivity, 81.6%; specificity, 100%).


Wiwattanawarang N.,Chiang Rai Prachanukroh Hospital
Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand | Year: 2014

Total knee replacement is an effective procedure for severely diseased knee joints; however, one of the major problems resulting in failure of arthroplasty is periprosthetic joint infection. Fungal infection is rarely found perprosthetic joints infection, but the incidence may be increased in high risk patients. Progression of the disease and definitive treatment guidelines have not yet been established. In two cases of fungal periprosthetic joint infection the organism was identified from cultures as Candida spp. Those patients had developed symptoms of pain and local knee inflammation six years after total knee replacement. A two-stage operation was carried out. The first operation removed the prosthesis, the polyethylene surface, the cement mantle and the infected tissue. After identification of the organism, the correct antibiotic was administered until the infection was controlled. A second operation was carried out to re-implant the prosthesis after the infection had subsided. A summary of reports in the literature regarding treatment of fungal periprosthetic infections as well as an algorithm for treatment decision making are presented. © 2014, Medical Association of Thailand. All rights reserved.

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