Chiang Mai, Thailand

Chiang Mai University
Chiang Mai, Thailand

Chiang Mai University is a public research university in northern Thailand founded in 1964 with a strong emphasis on engineering, science, agriculture, medicine etc. Its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate, professional and continuing education offered through resident instruction. Its main campus lies between Chiang Mai downtown and Doi Suthep in Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai Province.The university was the first institute of higher education in Northern Thailand, and the first provincial university in Thailand. Wikipedia.

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: SSH.2012.4.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.05M | Year: 2012

The project SEATIDE brings together Southeast Asian (SEA) and European researchers with two objectives: research and network development. Research. Using locally focused field study methodologies, our experience of research on integration frameworks in Southeast Asia shows that historical and contemporary integrative processes include some groups and exclude others. Exclusion of communities presents risks to human development and security, even of framework disintegration. This understanding directs our research question: in processes of integration, who is excluded? We address it in thematic work packages with relevant qualitative/quantitative case studies guided by a common analytical framework focused on four key issues: diversity, prosperity, knowledge and security. Attention to SEAs sub-regions and globalisation/transnational issues defines our approach. Structuring the European Research Area (ERA). On the basis of existing structures the unique EFEO network of 10 field centres in SEA, plus ECAF, EUROSEAS, ASEF we work for the development of effective, integrated networks of EU-SEA research, embracing Western European and ASEAN-founder countries alongside Eastern/Southern Europe and post-communist SEA nations. Broad dissemination of results is essential to the projects success, through conferences, publications, press coverage and policy briefs. Our recent and innovative research serves to improve the dialogue initiated in the EFEOs FP7 project IDEAS between social scientists and policymakers.

Commission On Higher Education and Chiang Mai University | Date: 2014-12-05

A composition (e.g., phytochemical composition) including sesamin, the composition exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-cytokine storm, connective tissue preservation, anti-viral, and/or other properties in biological tissue. The phytochemical composition therapeutically affects a pro-inflammatory cytokine condition, for instance facilitating or effectuating decrease in a quantity of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, for example, interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis-alpha. The phytochemical composition facilitates or effectuates an increase in quantity of an anti-inflammatory cytokines. The phytochemical composition can additionally facilitate a connective tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) preservation effect. The phytochemical composition can also inhibit an action of a viral neuraminidase, for example, the influenza A virus neuraminidase. Uses of sesamin for manufacture of phytochemical compositions having predetermined concentrations of sesamin include facilitating a decrease in quantity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, a connective tissue anti-degenerative effect, and/or an inhibition of viral neuraminidase within the living organism. Manufacturing processes for the phytochemical compositions are also described.

Vaniyapong T.,Chiang Mai University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Carotid endarterectomy may significantly reduce the risk of stroke in people with recently symptomatic, severe carotid artery stenosis. However, there are significant perioperative risks that may be reduced by performing the operation under local rather than general anaesthetic. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1996, and previously updated in 2004 and 2008. To determine whether carotid endarterectomy under local anaesthetic: (1) reduces the risk of perioperative stroke and death compared with general anaesthetic; (2) reduces the complication rate (other than stroke) following carotid endarterectomy; and (3) is acceptable to patients and surgeons. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (September 2013), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2013), EMBASE (1980 to September 2013) and Index to Scientific and Technical Proceedings (ISTP) (1980 to September 2013). We also handsearched relevant journals, and searched the reference lists of articles identified. Randomised trials comparing the use of local anaesthetic to general anaesthetic for carotid endarterectomy were considered for inclusion. Three review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We calculated a pooled Peto odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for the following outcomes that occurred within 30 days of surgery: stroke, death, stroke or death, myocardial infarction, local haemorrhage, cranial nerve injuries, and shunted arteries. We included 14 randomised trials involving 4596 operations, of which 3526 were from the single largest trial (GALA). In general, reporting of methodology in the included studies was poor. All studies were unable to blind patients and surgical teams to randomised treatment allocation and for most studies the blinding of outcome assessors was unclear. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of stroke within 30 days of surgery between the local anaesthesia group and the general anaesthesia group. The incidence of strokes in the local anaesthesia group was 3.2% compared to 3.5% in the general anaesthesia group (Peto OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.28). There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of patients who had a stroke or died within 30 days of surgery. In the local anaesthesia group 3.6% of patients had a stroke or died compared to 4.2% of patients in the general anaesthesia group (Peto OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.16). There was a non-significant trend towards lower operative mortality with local anaesthetic. In the local anaesthesia group 0.9% of patients died within 30 days of surgery compared to 1.5% of patients in the general anaesthesia group (Peto OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.07). However, neither the GALA trial or the pooled analysis were adequately powered to reliably detect an effect on mortality. The proportion of patients who had a stroke or died within 30 days of surgery did not differ significantly between the two types of anaesthetic techniques used during carotid endarterectomy. This systematic review provides evidence to suggest that patients and surgeons can choose either anaesthetic technique, depending on the clinical situation and their own preferences.

Suttajit S.,Chiang Mai University
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Quetiapine is a widely used atypical antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia that has been on the market for over a decade. However, It is not clear how the effects of quetiapine differ from typical antipsychotics. To review the effects of quetiapine in comparison with typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2010), and inspected references of all identified studies. We included all randomised control trials comparing oral quetiapine with typical antipsychotic drugs in people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data, we calculated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using a random-effects model. We presented chosen outcomes in a 'Summary of findings' table and comparative risks where appropriate. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD) based on a random-effects model. We assessed risk of bias for included studies. The review includes 43 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 7217 participants. Most studies were from China. The percentages of participants leaving the studies early were similar (36.5% in quetiapine group and 36.9% in typical antipsychotics group) and no significant difference between groups was apparent for leaving early due to any reason (23 RCTs n = 3576 RR 0.91 CI 0.81 to 1.01, moderate quality evidence), however, fewer participants in the quetiapine group left the studies early due to adverse events (15 RCTs, n = 3010, RR 0.48 CI 0.30 to 0.77).Overall global state was similar between groups (no clinically significant response; 16 RCTs, n = 1607, RR 0.96 CI 0.75 to 1.23, moderate quality evidence) and there was no significant difference in positive symptoms (PANSS positive subscore: 22 RCTs, n = 1934, MD 0.02 CI -0.39 to 0.43, moderate quality evidence). General psychopathology was equivocal (PANSS general psychopathology subscore: 18 RCTs, n = 1569, MD -0.20 CI -0.83 to 0.42) between those allocated to quetiapine and typical antipsychotics. However, quetiapine was statistically significantly more efficacious for negative symptoms (PANSS negative subscore: 22 RCTs, n = 1934, MD -0.82 CI -1.59 to -0.04, moderate quality evidence), however, this result was highly heterogeneous and driven by two small outlier studies with high effect sizes. Without these two studies, there was no heterogeneity and no statistically significant difference between quetiapine and typical antipsychotics.Compared with typical antipsychotics, quetiapine might cause fewer adverse effects (9 RCTs, n = 1985, RR 0.76 CI 0.64 to 0.90 number needed to treat to induce harm (NNTH) 10, CI 8 to 17), less abnormal ECG (2 RCTs, n = 165, RR 0.38 CI 0.16 to 0.92, NNTH 8, CI 4 to 55), fewer overall extrapyramidal effects (8 RCTs, n = 1,095, RR 0.17 CI 0.09 to 0.32, NNTH 3, CI 3 to 3, moderate quality evidence) and fewer specific extrapyramidal effects including akathisia, parkinsonism, dystonia and tremor. Moreover, it might cause lower prolactin level (4 RCTs, n = 1034, MD -16.20 CI -23.34 to -9.07, moderate quality evidence) and less weight gain compared with some typical antipsychotics in the short term (9 RCTs, n = 866, RR 0.52 CI 0.34 to 0.80, NNTH 8, CI 6 to 15).However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in suicide attempt, suicide, death, QTc prolongation, low blood pressure, tachycardia, sedation, gynaecomastia, galactorrhoea, menstrual irregularity and white blood cell count. Quetiapine may not differ from typical antipsychotics in the treatment of positive symptoms and general psychopathology. There are no clear differences in terms of the treatment of negative symptoms. However, it causes fewer adverse effects in terms of abnormal ECG, extrapyramidal effects, abnormal prolactin levels and weight gain.

This paper describes the construction of low-pass FIR filters for application as command input shapers in motion control systems. The filters are designed to operate on an arbitrary command input signal to ensure a finite settling time for system modes with known natural frequency and damping ratio. In addition, the required roll-off rate of the filter frequency response may be prescribed in the design. Excitation of unmodeled high-frequency modes can thereby be reduced. The filters also produce an input-smoothing effect that is useful in situations where discontinuities in the input signal or its derivatives would be detrimental to system performance or function. Numerical case studies are presented to clarify these effects. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rerkasem K.,Chiang Mai University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2011

Severe narrowing (stenosis) of the carotid artery is an important cause of stroke. Surgical treatment (carotid endarterectomy) may reduce the risk of stroke, but carries a risk of operative complications. To determine the balance of benefit versus risk of endarterectomy plus best medical management compared with best medical management alone in patients with a recent symptomatic carotid stenosis (i.e. transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or non-disabling stroke). We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (July 2010), MEDLINE (1966 to March 2010), EMBASE (1990 to March 2010) and three other databases, and handsearched relevant journals and reference lists. Randomised controlled trials.   Two review authors independently selected studies and extracted the data. We included three trials. As the trials differed in the methods of measurement of carotid stenosis and in the definition of stroke, we did a pooled analysis of individual patient data on 6092 patients (35,000 patient years of follow-up) after reassessment of the carotid angiograms and outcomes from all three trials using the primary electronic data files and redefined outcome events where necessary to achieve comparability.On re-analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the trials in the risks of any of the main outcomes in either of the treatment groups or in the effects of surgery. Surgery increased the five-year risk of ipsilateral ischaemic stroke in patients with less than 30% stenosis (N = 1746, absolute risk reduction (ARR) -2.2%, P = 0.05), had no significant effect in patients with 30% to 49% stenosis (N = 1429, ARR 3.2%, P = 0.6), was of marginal benefit in patients with 50% to 69% stenosis (N = 1549, ARR 4.6%, P = 0.04), and was highly beneficial in patients with 70% to 99% stenosis without near-occlusion (N = 1095, ARR 16.0%, P < 0.001). However, there was no evidence of benefit (N = 262, ARR -1.7%, P = 0.9) in patients with near-occlusions.Benefit from surgery was greatest in men, patients aged 75 years or over, and patients randomised within two weeks after their last ischaemic event and fell rapidly with increasing delay. Endarterectomy is of some benefit for 50% to 69% symptomatic stenosis and highly beneficial for 70% to 99% stenosis without near-occlusion. Benefit in patients with carotid near-occlusion is marginal in the short-term and uncertain in the long-term. These results are generalisable only to surgically-fit patients operated on by surgeons with low complication rates (less than 7% risk of stroke and death). Benefit from endarterectomy depends not only on the degree of carotid stenosis, but also on several other factors, including the delay to surgery after the presenting event.

Charoenkwan K.,Chiang Mai University
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2014

After hysterectomy, massive pelvic floor hemorrhage sometimes occurs, especially in those who underwent complicated procedures. Conventional methods frequently fail to control this type of life-threatening bleeding. This report demonstrates the successful application of the large-volume Bakri balloon as a pelvic pressure pack for the control of intractable pelvic floor hemorrhage after hysterectomy in 3 consecutive cases. The Bakri balloon was introduced through the laparotomy incision and was passed inflation port first through a small posterior culdotomy to the vagina. The shaft of the balloon then was pulled through the vaginal canal. When proper tamponade position was achieved, the balloon was inflated gradually with sterile normal saline solution up to the minimal volume that effectively compressed against the pelvic floor and successfully controlled the hemorrhage. Continuous traction was used by the connection of the balloon shaft to a 1-L intravenous fluid bag that was hanging from the end of the bed. In all cases, the bleeding was controlled promptly when the balloons were filled up to 400-550 mL. The balloons were removed at bedside 24-30 hours after the operation. On follow-up examination, all patients recovered well without complication. From the author's experience, pelvic pressure packing with the Bakri balloon can be an immediate lifesaver. It is safe and readily applicable and provides a period of temporary hemostasis during which time volume replacement and coagulation defect correction can be obtained. The balloon pack can be removed vaginally without the need for reexploration. It is easy and fast to assemble, apply, and remove. In addition, the size of the balloon pack is adjustable easily to match the size of hemorrhagic areas by merely inflating or deflating the balloon. Furthermore, it is convenient to monitor continuing intraabdominal blood loss through the balloon's drainage port without the need for an additional drain. Further exploration on its use would be worthwhile.

Charoenkwan K.,Chiang Mai University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Scalpels or electrosurgery can be used to make abdominal incisions. The potential benefits of electrosurgery include reduced blood loss, dry and rapid separation of tissue, and reduced risk of cutting injury to surgeons, though there are concerns about poor wound healing, excessive scarring, and adhesion formation. To compare the effects on wound complications of scalpel and electrosurgery for making abdominal incisions. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 24 February 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 2); Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to February Week 3 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 23 February 2012); Ovid EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 07); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 17 February 2012). We did not apply date or language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects on wound complications of electrosurgery with scalpel use for the creation of abdominal incisions. The study participants were patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery, regardless of the orientation of the incision (vertical, oblique, or transverse) and surgical setting (elective or emergency). Electrosurgical incisions included those in which the major layers of abdominal wall, including subcutaneous tissue and musculoaponeurosis (a strong sheet of fibrous connective tissue that serves as a tendon to attach muscles), were made by electrosurgery, regardless of the techniques used to incise the abdominal skin and peritoneum. Scalpel incisions included those in which all major layers of abdominal wall including skin, subcutaneous tissue, and musculoaponeurosis, were incised by a scalpel, regardless of the techniques used on the abdominal peritoneum. We independently assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias. One review author extracted data which were checked by a second review author. We calculated risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data, and difference in means (MD) and 95% CI for continuous data. We examined heterogeneity between studies. We included nine RCTs (1901 participants) which were mainly at unclear risk of bias due to poor reporting. There was no statistically significant difference in overall wound complication rates (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.18), nor in rates of wound dehiscence (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.36 to 2.98), however both these comparisons are underpowered and a treatment effect cannot be excluded. There is insufficient reliable evidence regarding the effects of electrosurgery compared with scalpel incisions on blood loss, pain, and incision time. Current evidence suggests that making an abdominal incision with electrosurgery may be as safe as using a scalpel. However, these conclusions are based on relatively few events and more research is needed. The relative effects of scalpels and electrosurgery are unclear for the outcomes of blood loss, pain, and incision time.

Modifying a command or actuation signal by convolving it with a sequence of impulses is a useful technique for eliminating structural vibration in rest-to-rest motion of mechanical systems. This paper describes an adaptive discrete-time version of this approach where amplitude and timing of impulses are tuned during operation to match the system under control. Solutions giving zero residual vibration are formulated in terms of a quadratic cost function and constructed by iterative operations on measured sets of inputoutput data. The versatility of the approach is demonstrated by simulated test cases involving (1) amplitude optimization of impulses with fixed timings, (2) timing optimization of impulses with fixed amplitudes and (3) combined timing and amplitude optimization. The approach is model-free and directly applicable to multi-mode systems. Moreover, fast adaptation within a single rest-to-rest maneuver can be achieved. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chiang Mai University | Date: 2013-10-30

A synthetic process of producing liquid tin(II) alkoxides for use as either catalysts in the synthesis of lactide or as initiators in the polymerization of cyclic ester monomers to yield biodegradable polyesters is described. The synthetic process employs anhydrous tin(II) chloride dissolved in n-heptane mixed with dry diethylamine. Alcohols, ROH, in which the R groups are n-C_(4)H_(9), n-C_(6)H_(13), and n-C_(8)H_(17 )are added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 12 hours. The reaction mixture is then filtered under nitrogen or argon before being evaporated to dryness to yield the three tin(II) alkoxides, namely: tin(II) n-butoxide, tin(II) n-hexoxide, and tin(II) n-octoxide. All three tin(II) alkoxides are viscous, dark yellow liquids which are highly soluble in most common organic solvents. Furthermore, they can all be stored under an inert atmosphere for long periods without any significant change in their reactivity and therefore, in their effectiveness as catalysts/initiators.

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