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Nairobi, Kenya

Dye T.V.,New York University | Apondi R.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | Lugada E.,CHF International

Background: Many countries face severe scale-up barriers toward achievement of MDGs. We ascertained motivational and experiential dimensions of participation in a novel, rapid, ''diagonal'' Integrated Prevention Campaign (IPC) in rural Kenya that provided prevention goods and services to 47,000 people within one week, aimed at rapidly moving the region toward MDG achievement. Specifically, the IPC provided interventions and commodities targeting disease burden reduction in HIV/ AIDS, malaria, and water-borne illness. Methods: Qualitative in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with 34 people (18 living with HIV/AIDS and 16 not HIVinfected) randomly selected from IPC attendees consenting to participate. Interviews were examined for themes and patterns to elucidate participant experience and motivation with IPC. Findings: Participants report being primarily motivated to attend IPC to learn of their HIV status (through voluntary counseling and testing), and with receipt of prevention commodities (bednets, water filters, and condoms) providing further incentive. Participants reported that they were satisfied with the IPC experience and offered suggestions to improve future campaigns. Interpretation: Learning their HIV status motivated participants along with the incentive of a wider set of commodities that were rapidly deployed through IPC in this challenging region. The critical role of wanting to know their HIV status combined with commodity incentives may offer a new model for rapid scaled-up of prevention strategies that are wider in scope in rural Africa. © 2011 Dye et al. Source

Kahn J.G.,University of California at San Francisco | Muraguri N.,Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation | Harris B.,University of California at San Francisco | Lugada E.,CHF International | And 4 more authors.

Background: Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign. Methods: We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases) and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease. Results: Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442), at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015). Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20. Discussion: A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive. © 2012 Kahn et al. Source

Dye T.D.,SUNY Upstate Medical University | Apondi R.,Uganda Virus Research Institute | Lugada E.S.,CHF International | Kahn J.G.,University of California at San Francisco | And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal

Background: Malaria is a leading global cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, despite recent advances in treatment and prevention technologies. Scale-up and wide distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) could rapidly decrease malarial disease in endemic areas, if used properly and continuously. Studies have shown that effective use of LLINs depends, in part, upon understanding causal factors associated with malaria. This study examined malaria beliefs, attitudes, and practices toward LLINs assessed during a large-scale integrated prevention campaign (IPC) in rural Kenya. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 IPC participants who received LLINs as part of a comprehensive prevention package of goods and services. One month after distribution, interviewers asked these individuals about their attitudes and beliefs regarding malaria, and about their use of LLINs. Results. Virtually all participants noted that mosquitoes were involved in causing malaria, though a substantial proportion of participants (47 percent) also mentioned an incorrect cause in addition to mosquitoes. For example, participants commonly noted that the weather (rain, cold) or consumption of bad food and water caused malaria. Regardless, most participants used the LLINs they were given and most mentioned positive benefits from their use, namely reductions in malarial illness and in the costs associated with its diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions. Attitudes toward LLINs were positive in this rural community in Western Kenya, and respondents noted benefits with LLIN use. With improved understanding and clarification of the direct (mosquitoes) and indirect (e.g., standing water) causes of malaria, it is likely that LLIN use can be sustained, offering effective household-level protection against malaria. © 2010 Dye et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Kahn J.G.,Super Models for Global Health | Kahn J.G.,University of California at San Francisco | Harris B.,University of California at San Francisco | Mermin J.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research

Background: Delivery of community-based prevention services for HIV, malaria, and diarrhea is a major priority and challenge in rural Africa. Integrated delivery campaigns may offer a mechanism to achieve high coverage and efficiency. Methods. We quantified the resources and costs to implement a large-scale integrated prevention campaign in Lurambi Division, Western Province, Kenya that reached 47,133 individuals (and 83% of eligible adults) in 7 days. The campaign provided HIV testing, condoms, and prevention education materials; a long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net; and a water filter. Data were obtained primarily from logistical and expenditure data maintained by implementing partners. We estimated the projected cost of a Scaled-Up Replication (SUR), assuming reliance on local managers, potential efficiencies of scale, and other adjustments. Results: The cost per person served was $41.66 for the initial campaign and was projected at $31.98 for the SUR. The SUR cost included 67% for commodities (mainly water filters and bed nets) and 20% for personnel. The SUR projected unit cost per person served, by disease, was $6.27 for malaria (nets and training), $15.80 for diarrhea (filters and training), and $9.91 for HIV (test kits, counseling, condoms, and CD4 testing at each site). Conclusions: A large-scale, rapidly implemented, integrated health campaign provided services to 80% of a rural Kenyan population with relatively low cost. Scaling up this design may provide similar services to larger populations at lower cost per person. © 2011 Kahn et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lugada E.,CHF International | Millar D.,CHF International | Grabowsky M.,ESP UN Foundation | Garg N.,Vestergaard Frandsen Inc | And 4 more authors.

Background: Integrated disease prevention in low resource settings can increase coverage, equity and efficiency in controlling high burden infectious diseases. A public-private partnership with the Ministry of Health, CDC, Vestergaard Frandsen and CHF International implemented a one-week integrated multi-disease prevention campaign. Method: Residents of Lurambi, Western Kenya were eligible for participation. The aim was to offer services to at least 80% of those aged 15-49. 31 temporary sites in strategically dispersed locations offered: HIV counseling and testing, 60 male condoms, an insecticide-treated bednet, a household water filter for women or an individual filter for men, and for those testing positive, a 3-month supply of cotrimoxazole and referral for follow-up care and treatment. Findings: Over 7 days, 47,311 people attended the campaign with a 96% uptake of the multi-disease preventive package. Of these, 99.7% were tested for HIV (87% in the target 15-49 age group); 80% had previously never tested. 4% of those tested were positive, 61% were women (5% of women and 3% of men), 6% had median CD4 counts of 541 cell/μL (IQR; 356, 754). 386 certified counselors attended to an average 17 participants per day, consistent with recommended national figures for mass campaigns. Among women, HIV infection varied by age, and was more likely with an ended marriage (e.g. widowed vs. never married, OR.3.91; 95% CI. 2.87-5.34), and lack of occupation. In men, quantitatively stronger relationships were found (e.g. widowed vs. never married, OR.7.0; 95% CI. 3.5-13.9). Always using condoms with a non-steady partner was more common among HIV-infected women participants who knew their status compared to those who did not (OR.5.4 95% CI. 2.3-12.8). Conclusion: Through integrated campaigns it is feasible to efficiently cover large proportions of eligible adults in rural underserved communities with multiple disease preventive services simultaneously achieving various national and international health development goals.© 2010 Lugada et al. Source

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