Kelambakkam, India
Kelambakkam, India

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Langeswaran K.,Bharath University | Revathy R.,University of Madras | Kumar S.G.,Chettinad University | Vijayaprakash S.,University of Madras | Balasubramanian M.P.,University of Madras
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: The present study was aimed to scrutinize the anticancer consequence of kaempferol against aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies of the incidence of liver cancer in the population, where dietary aflatoxin exposure is high, have provided much circumstantial evidence for the development of aflatoxin B1 induced primary liver cancer in humans. Methods: In the present investigation, aflatoxin B1 (2 mg/kg body weight i.p) was used as a hepatocarcinogen to induce hepatocellular carcinoma in experimental animals. Results: In the present analysis, on treatment with bioflavonoid kaempferol (100 mg/kg body weight p.o) the nucleic acids levels were brought back to normal and also the altered levels of biological enzymes such as membrane bound ATPase, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes levels (P<0.01). Conclusions: Membrane bound ATPase, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes were modulated by kaempferol evaluated on aflatoxin B1 induced primary liver carcinogenesis. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Langeswaran K.,Bharath University | Gowthamkumar S.,Chettinad University | Vijayaprakash S.,University of Madras | Revathy R.,University of Madras | Balasubramanian M.P.,University of Madras
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: The role of limonin as potent anti carcinogenic, apoptosis and chemotherapeutic agents has been supported by limited studies. Materials and Methods: In this study, limonin is identified as a potent anti proliferative agent against human hepatoma HepG2 cells based on the cell viability study, LDH leakage assay. Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells by limonin was evidenced by western blot analysis of Bax, Cyclin D1, Caspase 3 and Caspase9. Results: Since Wnt signalling is involved in the initiation and sustaining of hepatocellular carcinoma we studied differential expression of LRP5, LRP6 and DKK wnt players. Conclusion: Limonin found to down regulate these players which forms a rationale for further investigation on effect on limonin in cancer therapy.


Balaji T.,Chettinad University | Kumar S.S.,Sri Ramachandra University | Ramanathan M.,Annamalai University | Subramaniam A.,Chettinad University | Subramanian M.,Chettinad University
Biomedicine (India) | Year: 2012

Background & Objectives: Ptracthospholipase A2 (PLA2) is an enzyme that hydrolysis the sn-2 position of membrane phospholipids to release Arachidonic acid (AA). The AA thus released is converted to prostaglandins (PGs) by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) that exists in two isoforms COX-1 and COX-2. The PLA2 family consist of cyctosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) both of which are calcium dependent and calcium independent PLA2 (¡PLA2). The cPLA2 has affinity towards AA containing phospholipids. COX-2, which is considered to be upregulated only during inflammation, is constitutively present in most of the organ systems. The role of COX-2 in male reproductive system is not clear. High levels of COX-2 detected in vas deferens of mice are thought to alter the membrane properties of sperm. The present study focuses on the association between COX-2 and cPLA2 in male reproductive organs of mice. Methods: Adult mice received nimesulide orally. After 3h, 6h, 15 and 45 days following nimesulide administration phospolipid levels and cpla2 activity was measured. Results: There was decrease in phospholipid levels and significant increase in cPLA2 activity in vas deferens and epididymis of mice where high levels of COX-2 are detected. Conclusion: Increase in cPLA2 will reduce the viability of the cell as it is thought to induce apoptosis. High levels of COX-2 are expressed in cancer cells but the expression of cPLA2 is contradicting. The association between COX-2 and cPLA2 is better understood through this study which might be helpful in the treatment of cancer.


Kavya J.,Chettinad University | Amsaveni G.,Chettinad University | Nagalakshmi M.,Chettinad University | Girigoswami K.,Chettinad University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Bionanoscience | Year: 2013

Studies on antitumour activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are gaining interest with rapid space. In the present study we have synthesized AgNP applying conventional citrate reduction method for conducting a gene level study to know the expression status of certain genes like Caspase-3, Bax and Bcl 2 in DLA tumour cells before and after treatment with AgNP. The IC50 value of about 3.2 μM was assessed from a dose-dependent MTT assay and same dosage was maintained to treat tumour bearing mice. The post treatment over expression of apoptotic genes, Caspase-3 and Bax with a reduction in the expression of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 causes time dependent gradual reduction of Bcl2/Bax. This observation is well agreement with the anti-tumour activity of AgNP and apoptosis is the major mechanism of cell death. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.


Ramakrishnan V.,Chettinad University | Gowtham Kumar S.,Chettinad University | Govindaraju S.,Chettinad University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

Pan Masala (PM) chewing is very dangerous for health but it is becoming very popular day by day. PM is a dried powdered mixture containing ingredients like areca nut, catechu, lime, cardamom and flavouring agents. It is consumed abundantly by Indians and is also exported to Western countries. A cytogenetic study to assess the micronucleus (MN), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels and chromosomal aberrations among (CA) 60 pan chewers and 60 non-chewers was conducted in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. In the present cytogenetic monitoring study, analysis of MN was significantly higher (15.82 ± 1.31) in chewers than controls (4.82 ± 1.47) (P < 0.001) and SCE also was significantly higher in chewers (9.23± 2.12) than controls (4.80±1.11) (P < 0.001). In exfoliated buccal mucosa and chromosome analysis (CA), frequency of chromatid type aberrations is lower in controls than chewers such as gaps (0.90% v. 1.83%) breaks (0.47% v. 1.77%), exchanges (0.02% v. 0.18) and acentric fragments (0.20% v. 0.90%). The increased percentage of aberrations found among pan chewers is significantly higher when compared to that of the controls. Isochromatid aberrations also increased significantly such as gaps (0.12% v. 0.97%) breaks (0.07% v. 0.80%), acentric fragments (0.05% v. 0.23%), dicentrics (0.02% v. 0.63%), and these were estimated in the peripheral blood lymphocytes to assess possible DNA damage. All three cytogenetic endpoints demonstrated a statistically significant increase (P < 0.001) among the pan masala chewers as compared with the non-consuming controls. In conclusion, we propose the use of the cytokinesisblock micronucleus assay, sister chromatid exchange and chromosome aberrations for getting a sensitive information on cell cycle progression and cytotoxicity of chewing pan masala.


Jayanthi S.,Chettinad University | Jeya M.,Chettinad University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2012

Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) emerged as important nosocomial pathogen causing opportunistic infections. Aim of the study is to detect the clinical distribution and antibiotic resistant pattern of nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli isolated from the clinical samples and to detect Mettalobeta lactamase production by multidrug resistant isolates. A total of 6284 clinical samples were processed for the period of six months. The species of the NFGNB isolates were identified by API ID 32 GN system (bio merieux).Screening for Metallo beta lactamase (MBL) production by combined disc test method was done on the multidrug resistant isolates. Out of 6284 clinical samples 327 (5.2%) nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli were isolated. The split up of NFGNB were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 135(41.2%),Pseudomonas species other than P.aeruginosa were 91(27.8%), Acinetobacter species 88(26.9%) and others 13(3.9%). Multidrug resistant strains among these isolates were 129 (39.4%) and the metallo beta lactamase enzyme producers were 40 (31%).


Jaiganesh T.,Chettinad University | Daisy Vimala Rani J.,Chettinad University | Girigoswami A.,Chettinad University
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2012

The present study reports the effect of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots on the life cycle of Escherichia coli. CdS quantum dots were synthesized by pH sensitive organochemical route using cadmium chloride and sodium sulfide as precursors and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as capping agent. It is observed that varying concentration of MPA leads to the production of different sized quantum dots with inverse proportionality and increment in the fluorescence quantum yield. The investigation also shows that CdS quantum dots have no antibacterial activity except it delays the log phase growth of bacteria in terms of size of the particles. The largest synthesized particles significantly elongate the lag phase growth. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Vysakh P.R.,Chettinad University | Jeya M.,Chettinad University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance against most of the therapeutic agents. The most notable example of this phenomenon was the emergence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We are reporting the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates from a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A total of 450 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical samples were taken up for the study and they were screened for MRSA by using standard microbiological methods. An antibiotic assay was done for the confirmed MRSA isolates. The differentiation of the isolates into community acquired MRSA (CAMRSA) and hospital acquired MRSA (HAMRSA) was done according to the prescribed criteria. The double disc diffusion test was performed for both the groups, to identify the inducible clindamycin resistance. The HAMRSA and the CAMRSA isolates were subjected to a molecular analysis by PCR, to detect the presence of the Mec A gene and the PVL gene respectively. Results: Out of the 450 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 121 were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 27%) and 329 were Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, 73%). 91 MRSA isolates were grouped into HAMRSA and 30 were grouped into CAMRSA, with a prevalence of 20% and 7% respectively. All the MRSA strains were resistant to Penicillin (100%), Cefoxitin (100%) and Oxacillin (100%). 53.7% of the HAMRSA isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance against that of 44.4% among the CAMRSA isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to Vancomycin and Linezolid. 64% of the HAMRSA isolates showed the presence of the Mec A gene and 48% of the CAMRSA isolates showed the presence of the PVL genes. Conclusion: The prevalence of the HAMRSA was higher than that of the CAMRSA and they showed a higher drug resistance.


Konda V.G.R.,Chettinad University | Eerike M.,Chettinad University | Prabhu L.,Chettinad University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2013

The goal of the study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root in paracetamol induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Thirty six albino rats weighing 150-200gr were selected and divided into six groups with 6 in each group. Paracetamol (3gr/kg) was given to induce hepatotoxicity in the animals group II, III IV & V. N-acetyl cysteine (100mg/kg) was given as standard drug in group III. Group I given with normal saline. Group II given with paracetamol (3gm/kg) to induce hepatotoxicity. Group III was given paracetamol and standard drug N-Acetylcysteine (100mg/kg). Group IV and group V were given paracetamol and Aconitum heterophyllum (225mg/kg) and 450mg/kg respectively. Group VI was given plant extract root alone 450mg/kg. The hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root was evaluated by the assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminases (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminases (SGPT), alkaline phosphatise (ALP), total bilirubin, serum protein, and histopathological studies of the liver. Ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root significantly reduced the liver damage and all biochemical parameters. The 450mg/kg extract showed greater response than 225mg/kg. This confirms the activity of ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root has hepatoprotective activity.


PubMed | Chettinad University
Type: | Journal: Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy | Year: 2012

The present study reports the effect of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots on the life cycle of Escherichia coli. CdS quantum dots were synthesized by pH sensitive organochemical route using cadmium chloride and sodium sulfide as precursors and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as capping agent. It is observed that varying concentration of MPA leads to the production of different sized quantum dots with inverse proportionality and increment in the fluorescence quantum yield. The investigation also shows that CdS quantum dots have no antibacterial activity except it delays the log phase growth of bacteria in terms of size of the particles. The largest synthesized particles significantly elongate the lag phase growth.

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