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Kelambakkam, India

Langeswaran K.,Bharath University | Revathy R.,University of Madras | Kumar S.G.,Chettinad University | Vijayaprakash S.,University of Madras | Balasubramanian M.P.,University of Madras
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

Objective: The present study was aimed to scrutinize the anticancer consequence of kaempferol against aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies of the incidence of liver cancer in the population, where dietary aflatoxin exposure is high, have provided much circumstantial evidence for the development of aflatoxin B1 induced primary liver cancer in humans. Methods: In the present investigation, aflatoxin B1 (2 mg/kg body weight i.p) was used as a hepatocarcinogen to induce hepatocellular carcinoma in experimental animals. Results: In the present analysis, on treatment with bioflavonoid kaempferol (100 mg/kg body weight p.o) the nucleic acids levels were brought back to normal and also the altered levels of biological enzymes such as membrane bound ATPase, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes levels (P<0.01). Conclusions: Membrane bound ATPase, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes were modulated by kaempferol evaluated on aflatoxin B1 induced primary liver carcinogenesis. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Source

Langeswaran K.,Bharath University | Gowthamkumar S.,Chettinad University | Vijayaprakash S.,University of Madras | Revathy R.,University of Madras | Balasubramanian M.P.,University of Madras
Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine

Objective: The role of limonin as potent anti carcinogenic, apoptosis and chemotherapeutic agents has been supported by limited studies. Materials and Methods: In this study, limonin is identified as a potent anti proliferative agent against human hepatoma HepG2 cells based on the cell viability study, LDH leakage assay. Induction of apoptosis in HepG2 cells by limonin was evidenced by western blot analysis of Bax, Cyclin D1, Caspase 3 and Caspase9. Results: Since Wnt signalling is involved in the initiation and sustaining of hepatocellular carcinoma we studied differential expression of LRP5, LRP6 and DKK wnt players. Conclusion: Limonin found to down regulate these players which forms a rationale for further investigation on effect on limonin in cancer therapy. Source

Jayanthi S.,Chettinad University | Jeya M.,Chettinad University
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences

Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli (NFGNB) emerged as important nosocomial pathogen causing opportunistic infections. Aim of the study is to detect the clinical distribution and antibiotic resistant pattern of nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli isolated from the clinical samples and to detect Mettalobeta lactamase production by multidrug resistant isolates. A total of 6284 clinical samples were processed for the period of six months. The species of the NFGNB isolates were identified by API ID 32 GN system (bio merieux).Screening for Metallo beta lactamase (MBL) production by combined disc test method was done on the multidrug resistant isolates. Out of 6284 clinical samples 327 (5.2%) nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli were isolated. The split up of NFGNB were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 135(41.2%),Pseudomonas species other than P.aeruginosa were 91(27.8%), Acinetobacter species 88(26.9%) and others 13(3.9%). Multidrug resistant strains among these isolates were 129 (39.4%) and the metallo beta lactamase enzyme producers were 40 (31%). Source

Vysakh P.R.,Chettinad University | Jeya M.,Chettinad University
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research

Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus has developed resistance against most of the therapeutic agents. The most notable example of this phenomenon was the emergence of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We are reporting the prevalence and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the MRSA isolates from a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A total of 450 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical samples were taken up for the study and they were screened for MRSA by using standard microbiological methods. An antibiotic assay was done for the confirmed MRSA isolates. The differentiation of the isolates into community acquired MRSA (CAMRSA) and hospital acquired MRSA (HAMRSA) was done according to the prescribed criteria. The double disc diffusion test was performed for both the groups, to identify the inducible clindamycin resistance. The HAMRSA and the CAMRSA isolates were subjected to a molecular analysis by PCR, to detect the presence of the Mec A gene and the PVL gene respectively. Results: Out of the 450 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 121 were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 27%) and 329 were Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, 73%). 91 MRSA isolates were grouped into HAMRSA and 30 were grouped into CAMRSA, with a prevalence of 20% and 7% respectively. All the MRSA strains were resistant to Penicillin (100%), Cefoxitin (100%) and Oxacillin (100%). 53.7% of the HAMRSA isolates showed inducible clindamycin resistance against that of 44.4% among the CAMRSA isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to Vancomycin and Linezolid. 64% of the HAMRSA isolates showed the presence of the Mec A gene and 48% of the CAMRSA isolates showed the presence of the PVL genes. Conclusion: The prevalence of the HAMRSA was higher than that of the CAMRSA and they showed a higher drug resistance. Source

Balaji T.,Chettinad University | Kumar S.S.,Sri Ramachandra University | Ramanathan M.,Annamalai University | Subramaniam A.,Chettinad University | Subramanian M.,Chettinad University
Biomedicine (India)

Background & Objectives: Ptracthospholipase A2 (PLA2) is an enzyme that hydrolysis the sn-2 position of membrane phospholipids to release Arachidonic acid (AA). The AA thus released is converted to prostaglandins (PGs) by the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) that exists in two isoforms COX-1 and COX-2. The PLA2 family consist of cyctosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) both of which are calcium dependent and calcium independent PLA2 (¡PLA2). The cPLA2 has affinity towards AA containing phospholipids. COX-2, which is considered to be upregulated only during inflammation, is constitutively present in most of the organ systems. The role of COX-2 in male reproductive system is not clear. High levels of COX-2 detected in vas deferens of mice are thought to alter the membrane properties of sperm. The present study focuses on the association between COX-2 and cPLA2 in male reproductive organs of mice. Methods: Adult mice received nimesulide orally. After 3h, 6h, 15 and 45 days following nimesulide administration phospolipid levels and cpla2 activity was measured. Results: There was decrease in phospholipid levels and significant increase in cPLA2 activity in vas deferens and epididymis of mice where high levels of COX-2 are detected. Conclusion: Increase in cPLA2 will reduce the viability of the cell as it is thought to induce apoptosis. High levels of COX-2 are expressed in cancer cells but the expression of cPLA2 is contradicting. The association between COX-2 and cPLA2 is better understood through this study which might be helpful in the treatment of cancer. Source

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