Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute

Kelambakkam, India

Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute

Kelambakkam, India
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Karthik R.,Chettinad Academy of Research and Education | Manigandan V.,Chettinad Academy of Research and Education | Ebenezar K.K.,Chettinad Academy of Research and Education | Vijayashree R.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Saravanan R.,Chettinad Academy of Research and Education
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2017

Posterior salivary gland (PSG) toxins are high molecular weight toxins secreted by cephalopods and gastropods which possess immense potentials in biomedical applications. In the present study, the biomedical potentials of the PSG toxin from the cuttlefish, S. pharaonis was determined in vitro and in vivo. The cytostatic potentials of the PSG toxin was determined by the lymphocyte migration inhibition assay. The PSG toxin (50 μg/ml) effectively inhibited the migration of lymphocytes across the agarose gel matrix under the presence of lipopolysaccharide mitogen. The cytotoxicity of the PSG toxin against cancer cell lines was determined using the MTT assay. The PSG toxin exhibited highest cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50-10.64 μM) followed by KB, HeLa and A549 cells. The PSG toxin also exhibited proportional release of LDH leakage by mitochondrial damage with an IC50-13.85 μM against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the PSG toxin induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. The PSG toxin (80 mg/kg b.w.) exhibited pronounced reduction (29%) in tumor growth in experimentally induced breast carcinoma in female Balb/C mice, in vivo. Hematological analysis illustrated the restoration of blood and biochemical parameters by the PSG toxin in mice induced with tumor. Histopathology studies also revealed the restitution of morphological features in the mammary tumor and vital organs in mice treated with the PSG toxin without any observed toxicity and adverse effects. The PSG toxin further exhibited commendable potentials in the prevention of tumor metastasis into immediate organs viz lungs, thus functioning as an anti-metastatic agent. The results of the present study showed that the PSG toxin exhibited immense promise as a potential peptide based anticancer agent, in future. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Kamath M.S.,SRM University | Ahmed S.S.S.J.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Dhanasekaran M.,Life Line Rigid Hospital Pvt Ltd | Winkins Santosh S.,SRM University
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2014

Biomaterials-based three-dimensional scaffolds are being extensively investigated in bone tissue engineering. A potential scaffold should be osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic for enhanced bone formation. In this study, a three-dimensional porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold was engineered for prolonged release of resveratrol. Resveratrol-loaded albumin nanoparticles (RNP) were synthesized and entrapped into a PCL scaffold to form PCL-RNP by a solvent casting and leaching method. An X-ray diffraction study of RNP and PCL-RNP showed that resveratrol underwent amorphization, which is highly desired in drug delivery. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates that resveratrol was not chemically modified during the entrapment process. Release of resveratrol from PCL-RNP was sustained, with a cumulative release of 64% at the end of day 12. The scaffold was evaluated for its bone-forming potential in vitro using human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for 16 days. Alkaline phosphatase activity assayed on days 8 and 12 showed a significant increase in activity (1.6-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively) induced by PCL-RNP compared with the PCL scaffold (the positive control). Moreover, von Kossa staining for calcium deposits on day 16 showed increased mineralization in PCL-RNP. These results suggest PCL-RNP significantly improves mineralization due to its controlled and prolonged release of resveratrol, thereby increasing the therapeutic potential in bone tissue engineering. © 2014 Kamath et al.

Ahmed S.S.S.J.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Ahmed S.S.S.J.,SRM University
Metabolomics | Year: 2014

Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a common devastating condition occurs in up to 6 % of the population. It is asymptomatic but potentially fatal because of the progressive enlargement and rupturing leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Early diagnosis of IA is more valuable before it ruptures and hemorrhage. The diagnosis of IA is usually carried out using computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. However, there is no biochemical test or a marker available for diagnosis. Serum metabolites were analyzed from normal and unruptured intracranial aneurysms patients (UIA) by NMR spectroscopy to identify the presence of serum markers, which could provide a clue for diagnosis and altered metabolic pathways in UIA condition. Analysis of proton spectra revealed significant perturbations in 20 serum metabolites in UIA. Multivariate analysis showed a distinct separation of normal from UIA based on 17 most contributing metabolites, and the scoring algorithm determines the perturbed metabolic pathways in UIA (urea cycle, citric acid cycle and ammonia recycling). Also, the gene expression analysis shows the significant (p ≤ 0.05) change in ARG, CPS1 and OTC genes leading to dysregulation in the urea cycle. Further, estimation of urea showed a significant increase in serum urea, which provides the prospect of rapid diagnosis. Overall, this study demonstrates the promise of developing biomarkers for the diagnosis of UIA from serum. In addition, the implementation of systems biological approach in metabolomic context gained an understanding about UIA that reflects the numerous metabolic pathways identified to be affected in disease condition. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Sarkar M.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Sarkar M.,St Francis Hospital And Medical Center | Wolf M.G.,St Francis Hospital And Medical Center
European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology | Year: 2012

Objective: This study was done to evaluate/investigate the natural history of simple ovarian cysts in postmenopausal women and to determine the risk for malignant transformation of these cysts. Study design: Ultrasound reports of all the postmenopausal women who attended St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, USA from January 1997 to April 2010 with an ultrasound diagnosis of simple cysts of ovary were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 619 patients with 743 simple ovarian cysts were evaluated. It was found that 305 out of 619 patients (49.27%) were lost in follow-up. Therefore, 314 patients (50.73%) with 378 cysts could be followed further by ultrasound study. Results: One hundred and seventy-five (46.30%) of the 378 cysts that could be followed further had spontaneous resolution and 166 cysts (43.91%) persisted unchanged over the follow-up period. Thirty cysts (7.94%) turned into complex cysts and four cysts (1.06%) significantly increased in size. One cyst significantly decreased in size, though it did not resolve. Only one patient developed papillary serous carcinoma (high grade) of the ovary. This occurred three years after her last ultrasound for simple cyst surveillance. Conclusion: Simple ovarian cysts during the menopause can be followed conservatively because their risk for malignant transformation is low. The majority of these cysts either resolve spontaneously or persist unaltered on follow-up. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Sarkar M.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Konar H.,Calcutta National Medical College and Hospital | Raut D.,VM Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: This cross-sectional observational study was undertaken to establish clinico-pathological characteristics of patients with gynecological malignancies, focusing mainly on symptoms, histological type and stage of the disease at presentation, in a tertiary care setting in Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In the gynecology out-patient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, India, the patients with suggestive symptoms of gynecological malignancies were screened. Their diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology. One hundred thirteen patients with histopathologically confirmed gynecological malignancies were interviewed. Results: The most frequently reported symptoms by the patients with histopathologically confirmed gynecological malignancies were excessive, offensive with or without blood stained vaginal discharge (69.0%), irregular, heavy or prolonged vaginal bleeding (36.3%) and postmenopausal bleeding (31.9%). The majority of the patients (61.0%) had squamous cell carcinoma on histopathological examination, followed by adenocarcinoma (30.1%). Nearly half of the patients (48.7%) were suffering from the Federation Internationale des Gynaecologistes et Obstetristes (FIGO) stage III, followed by stage II (40.7%) malignancy. Conclusions: This study highlights that most of the patients with gynecological malignancies present late at an appropriate health care facility. Ovarian cancer may often have non-specific or misleading symptomatic presentation, whereas cervical cancer often presents with some specific symptoms. These observations point to the need for increasing awareness about gynecological malignancies in the community and providing easily accessible adequate facilities for early detection and treatment of the disease by optimal use of available resources, i.e. strengthening the primary health care system.

Balachandar G.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute
JBJS Case Connector | Year: 2015

Case: An elderly man presented with nontraumatic, acute onset of paralysis of the right quadriceps and the hip flexors, adductors, and abductors without backache or signs of nerve-root tension. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of upper lumbar-disc extrusion with foraminal stenosis as well as right-sided inflammatory lumbar plexitis involving the L2, L3, and L4 nerve roots. However, the pattern of neurological involvement and relatively rapid and full recovery following treatment with parenteral corticosteroids suggested a diagnosis of chemical radiculitis. Conclusion: It is important to differentiate chemical radiculitis from both lumbar plexopathy and a herniated nucleus pulposus because it can be treated nonoperatively, with the expectation of a relatively rapid and full recovery. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

Prakash T.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute
Advanced Materials Letters | Year: 2011

Copper (I) iodide (CuI) has been synthesized by wet chemical route at room temperature using freshly prepared copper oxide (CuO) as a precursor. The as-prepared CuI exists in γ - phase and it undergoes two structural phase transition between room temperature and its melting point. Differential scanning calorimetry measurement in both heating and cooling cycles confirms its structural reversible phase transitions from γ to β phase then from β to α phase. In order to understand the underlying physical properties before and after transitions induced by temperature was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis using TGA, DTA and DSC. © 2011 VBRI press.

Saravanan R.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute
Advances in Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2014

The glycosaminoglycan (heparin and heparan sulfate) are polyanionic sulfated polysaccharides mostly recognized for its anticoagulant activity. In many countries, low-molecular-weight heparins have replaced the unfractionated heparin, owing to its high bioavailability, half-life, and less adverse effect. The low-molecular-weight heparins differ in mode of preparation (chemical or enzymatic synthesis and chromatography fractionations) and as a consequence in molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, and pharmacological activities. Bovine and porcine body parts are at present used for manufacturing of commercial heparins, and the appearance of mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans has limited the use of bovine heparin. Consequently, marine organisms come across the new resource for the production of low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate. The importance of this chapter suggests that the low-molecular-weight heparin and heparan sulfate from marine species could be alternative sources for commercial heparin. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Kumaran G.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Jeya M.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2014

The common cause of skin infections are dermatophytes and opportunistic fungi. The prevalence of dermatophyte infection varies with different geographic area and climatic conditions. This study was undertaken to study the clinical pattern and the etiological agents of dermatophyte infections. Clinical samples from 100 patients were subjected to microscopic examination and culture on various media. In total 100 specimens collected, 54 were skin scrapings, 39 were hair samples and 7 were nail clippings. Direct microscopy revealed fungal elements in 65% of the cases, of these 50(77%) were culture positive and 15(23%) was culture negative. No fungal elements were observed in KOH mount in 35% of the cases, of these 5 (14%) yielded growth of fungi and 30(86%) were culture negative. Among the 55 fungal isolates, 49 were dermatophytes. The predominant isolate from all samples were Trichophyton mentagrophytes (33%). The study signifies the importance of mycological examination in the diagnosis of various mycoses for their effective management.

Shanmugam P.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Jeya M.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute | Linda S.S.,Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013

Introduction: A diabetic foot infection is one of the most feared complications of Diabetes mellitus. Many studies have reported on the bacteriology of Diabetic Foot Infections (DFIs) over the past 25 years, but the results have been varied and often contradictory. Aims and Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the bacterial profiles of infected ulcers and the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from 50 patients with diabetic foot ulcers by using sterile swabs and they were processed. Results: A total of 75 bacterial isolates were obtained from 50 patients with diabetic foot ulcers. The age group of these patients ranged from 35 to 80 years and the maximum number of patients was in the age group of 60 to 65 years. Gram negative bacilli were more prevalent (65.1%) than gram positive cocci (34.9%). The commonest isolate was Pseudomonas spp (16%), followed by Escherichia coli (14.6%) and Staphylococ-cus aureus (13.3%).The antibiotic sensivity profiles of the bacteria were also studied. 37.5% of the gram negative bacilli were ESBL producers and 31% were carbapenemase producers. Conclusion: This study showed a preponderance of gram negative bacilli among the isolates from the diabetic foot ulcers. Knowledge on the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates will be helpful in determining the drugs for the empirical treatment of diabetic ulcers.

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