Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science

Rochester, NY, United States

Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science

Rochester, NY, United States
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Principe D.A.,Diego Portales University | Sacco G.G.,National institute for astrophysics | Kastner J.H.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Wilner D.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | And 2 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2017

We present Chandra X-ray Observatory and Submillimeter Array (SMA) imaging of HBC 515, a system consisting of multiple young stellar objects (YSOs). The five members of HBC 515 represent a remarkably diverse array of YSOs, ranging from the low-mass Class I/II protostar HBC 515B, through Class II and transition disk objects (HBC 515D and C, respectively), to the "diskless", intermediate-mass, pre-main sequence (pre-MS) binary HBC 515A. Our Chandra/ACIS imaging establishes that all five components are X-ray sources, with HBC 515A-a subarcsecond-separation binary that is partially resolved by Chandra-being the dominant X-ray source. We detect an X-ray flare associated with HBC 515B. In the SMA imaging, HBC 515B is detected as a strong 1.3 mm continuum emission source; a second, weaker mm continuum source is coincident with the position of the transition disk object HBC 515C. These results strongly support the protostellar nature of HBC 515B, and firmly establish HBC 515A as a member of the rare class of relatively massive, X-ray luminous weak-lined T Tauri stars that are binaries and have shed their disks at very early stages of pre-MS evolution. The coexistence of two such disparate objects within a single, presumably coeval multiple YSO system highlights the influence of pre-MS star mass, binarity, and X-ray luminosity in regulating the lifetimes of circumstellar, planet-forming disks, and the timescales of star-disk interactions. © 2017 ESO.


Dangi S.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Linte C.A.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Linte C.A.,Rochester Institute of Technology
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2017

Right ventricle segmentation helps quantify many functional parameters of the heart and construct anatomical models for intervention planning. Here we propose a fast and accurate graph cut segmentation algorithm to extract the right ventricle from cine cardiac MRI sequences. A shape prior obtained by propagating the right ventricle label from an average atlas via affine registration is incorporated into the graph energy. The optimal segmentation obtained from the graph cut is iteratively refined to produce the final right ventricle blood pool segmentation. We evaluate our segmentation results against gold-standard expert manual segmentation of 16 cine MRI datasets available through the MICCAI 2012 Cardiac MR Right Ventricle Segmentation Challenge. Our method achieved an average Dice Index 0.83, a Jaccard Index 0.75, Mean absolute distance of 5.50 mm, and a Hausdorff distance of 10.00 mm. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.


Vodacek A.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Kerekes J.P.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2012

The generalized optical remote sensing tracking problem for an object moving in a dynamic urban environment is complex. Two emerging capabilities that can help solve this problem are adaptive multimodal sensing and modeling with data assimilation. Adaptive multimodal sensing describes sensor hardware systems that can be rapidly reconfigured to collect the appropriate data as needed. Imaging of a moving target implies some ability to forecast where to image next so as to keep the object in the scene. Forecasts require models and to help solve this prediction problem, data assimilation techniques can be applied to update executing models with sensor data and thereby dynamically minimize forecast errors. The direct combination of these two capabilities is powerful but does not answer the questions of how or when to change the imaging modality. The Dynamic Data-Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) paradigm is well-suited for solving this problem, where sensing must be adaptive to a complex changing environment and where the prediction of object movement and its interaction with the environment will enhance the ability of the sensing system to stay focused on the object of interest. Here we described our work on the creation of a modeling system for optical tracking in complex environments, with a focus on integrating an adaptive imaging sensor within the system framework. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Uzkent B.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Vodacek A.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Kerekes J.P.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Chen B.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science
Procedia Computer Science | Year: 2013

We consider the optical remote sensing tracking problem for vehicles in a complex environment using an adaptive sensor that can take spectral data at a small number of locations. The Dynamic Data-Driven Applications Systems (DDDAS) paradigm is well-suited for dynamically controlling such an adaptive sensor by using the prediction of object movement and its interaction with the environment to guide the location of spectral measurements. The spectral measurements are used for target identification through feature matching. We consider several adaptive sampling strategies for how to assign locations for spectral measurements in order to distinguish between multiple targets. In addition to guiding the measurement process, the tracking system pulls in additional data from OpenStreetMap to identify road networks and intersections. When a vehicle enters a detected intersection, it triggers the use of a multiple model prediction system to sample all possible turning options. The result of this added information is more accurate predictions and analysis from data assimilation using a Gaussian Sum filter (GSF). © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Yang J.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Messinger D.W.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Dube R.R.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Ientilucci E.J.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2017

Filtered multispectral imaging technique might be a potential method for crime scene documentation and ev-idence detection due to its abundant spectral information as well as non-contact and non-destructive nature. Low-cost and portable multispectral crime scene imaging device would be highly useful and efficient. The second generation crime scene imaging system uses CMOS imaging sensor to capture spatial scene and bandpass In-terference Filters (IFs) to capture spectral information. Unfortunately CMOS sensors suffer from severe spatial non-uniformity compared to CCD sensors and the major cause is Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN). IFs suffer from "blue shift" effect and introduce spatial-spectral correlated errors. Therefore, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN) correc-tion is critical to enhance crime scene image quality and is also helpful for spatial-spectral noise de-correlation. In this paper, a pixel-wise linear radiance to Digital Count (DC) conversion model is constructed for crime scene imaging CMOS sensor. Pixel-wise conversion gain Gi;j and Dark Signal Non-Uniformity (DSNU) Zi;j are cal-culated. Also, conversion gain is divided into four components: FPN row component, FPN column component, defects component and effective photo response signal component. Conversion gain is then corrected to average FPN column and row components and defects component so that the sensor conversion gain is uniform. Based on corrected conversion gain and estimated image incident radiance from the reverse of pixel-wise linear radiance to DC model, corrected image spatial uniformity can be enhanced to 7 times as raw image, and the bigger the image DC value within its dynamic range, the better the enhancement. © 2017 SPIE.


Kastner J.H.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Qi C.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Gorti U.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Gorti U.,NASA | And 7 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We have used the Submillimeter Array to image, at ∼1.″5 resolution, C2H emission from the circumstellar disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), ∼8 Myr-old, ∼0.8 classical T Tauri star TW Hya. The SMA imaging reveals that the C2H emission exhibits a ring-like morphology. Based on a model in which the C2H column density follows a truncated radial power-law distribution, we find that the inner edge of the ring lies at ∼45 AU, and that the ring extends to at least ∼120 AU. Comparison with previous (single-dish) observations of C2H emission indicates that the C2H molecules are subthermally excited and, hence, that the emission arises from the relatively warm ( K), tenuous ( cm-3) upper atmosphere of the disk. Based on these results and comparisons of the SMA C2H map with previous submillimeter and scattered-light imaging, we propose that the C2H emission most likely traces particularly efficient photo-destruction of small grains and/or photodesorption and photodissociation of hydrocarbons derived from grain ice mantles in the surface layers of the outer disk. The presence of a C2H ring in the TW Hya disk hence likely serves as a marker of dust grain processing and radial and vertical grain size segregation within the disk. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Kastner J.H.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Qi C.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Gorti U.,Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute | Gorti U.,NASA | And 7 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We have used the Submillimeter Array to image, at ∼1.″5 resolution, C2H emission from the circumstellar disk orbiting the nearby (D = 54 pc), ∼8 Myr-old, ∼0.8 classical T Tauri star TW Hya. The SMA imaging reveals that the C2H emission exhibits a ring-like morphology. Based on a model in which the C2H column density follows a truncated radial power-law distribution, we find that the inner edge of the ring lies at ∼45 AU, and that the ring extends to at least ∼120 AU. Comparison with previous (single-dish) observations of C2H emission indicates that the C2H molecules are subthermally excited and, hence, that the emission arises from the relatively warm ( K), tenuous ( cm-3) upper atmosphere of the disk. Based on these results and comparisons of the SMA C2H map with previous submillimeter and scattered-light imaging, we propose that the C2H emission most likely traces particularly efficient photo-destruction of small grains and/or photodesorption and photodissociation of hydrocarbons derived from grain ice mantles in the surface layers of the outer disk. The presence of a C2H ring in the TW Hya disk hence likely serves as a marker of dust grain processing and radial and vertical grain size segregation within the disk. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Mzinyane T.D.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | Van Aardt J.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Ahmed F.,University of South Africa
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

This study assessed the suitability of chlorophyll, nitrogen, and water content, derived from leaf-level spectroradiometer data, for estimating volume of Eucalyptus clones in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Volume was derived from field measurements of diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree height. Chlorophyll, nitrogen, and water related indices were used to estimate merchantable volume of Eucalyptus clones. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess whether significant differences could be detected amongst index values within the plots or compartments, based on different age groups, clones, and site qualities. Cross validation and model selection based on adjusted R2 and low Mallows' Cp were utilized in the development of volume models. The strength of the correlations for all clones combined was found to be much lower than the individual relationships for E. grandis and E. saligna. ANOVA results indicated that volume was significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by age, site quality, and the clone in question. Models developed using stepwise approach without ancillary data, such as age and site index, had low adjusted R2 values (0.47 ≥ R2 ≥ 0.72) and high root-mean-square error (RMSE) values compared to models that included ancillary data (0.81 ≥ R2 ≥ 0.90). Partial least square regression models exhibited higher R2(0.92 ≥ R2 ≥ 0.96) and lower RMSE and Mallows' Cp. These results suggest that spectral measurements of chlorophyll, nitrogen, and water content have potential as independent variables to assist in the estimation of merchantable volume of Eucalyptus clones. This has important implications since results can be extended to airborne data and regional assessments. © 2015 IEEE.


Williams M.D.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Van Aardt J.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Kerekes J.P.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

Exploitation of imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral) data using classification and spectral unmixing algorithms is a major research area in remote sensing, with reference data required to assess algorithm performance. However, we are limited by our inability to generate rapid, accurate, and consistent reference data, thus making quantitative algorithm analysis difficult. As a result, many investigators present either limited quantitative results, use synthetic imagery, or provide qualitative results using real imagery. Existing reference data typically classify large swaths of imagery pixel-by-pixel, per cover type. While this type of mapping provides a first order understanding of scene composition, it is not detailed enough to include complexities such as mixed pixels, intra-end-member variability, and scene anomalies. The creation of more detailed ground reference data based on field work, on the other hand, is complicated by the spatial scale of common hyperspectral data sets. This research presents a solution to this challenge via classification of low altitude, high spatial resolution (1m GSD) National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) hyperspectral imagery, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, to produce sub-pixel reference data for high altitude, lower spatial resolution (15m GSD) AVIRIS imagery. This classification is performed using traditional classification techniques, augmented by (0.3m GSD) NEON RGB data. This paper provides a methodology for generating large scale, sub-pixel reference data for AVIRIS imagery using NEON imagery. It also addresses challenges related to the fusion of multiple remote sensing modalities (e.g., different sensors, sensor look angles, spatial registration, varying scene illumination, etc.). A new algorithm for spatial registration of hyperspectral imagery with disparate resolutions is presented. Several versions of reference data results are compared to each other and to direct spectral unmixing of AVIRIS data. Initial results are promising, with ground based surveying required to quantify the accuracy of emotely sensed reference data. © 2016 SPIE.


Yang J.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Mathew J.J.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Dube R.R.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science | Messinger D.W.,Chester rlson Center For Imaging Science
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique refilectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the refilectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of refilectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the refilectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the refilectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors. © 2016 SPIE.

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