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Howard B.J.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Beresford N.A.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Copplestone D.,University of Stirling | Telleria D.,International Atomic Energy Agency | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2013

An IAEA handbook presenting transfer parameter values for wildlife has recently been produced. Concentration ratios (CRwo-media) between the whole organism (fresh weight) and either soil (dry weight) or water were collated for a range of wildlife groups (classified taxonomically and by feeding strategy) in terrestrial, freshwater, marine and brackish generic ecosystems. The data have been compiled in an on line database, which will continue to be updated in the future providing the basis for subsequent revision of the Wildlife TRS values. An overview of the compilation and analysis, and discussion of the extent and limitations of the data is presented. Example comparisons of the CRwo-media values are given for polonium across all wildlife groups and ecosystems and for molluscs for all radionuclides. The CRwo-media values have also been compared with those currently used in the ERICA Tool which represented the most complete published database for wildlife transfer values prior to this work. The use of CRwo-media values is a pragmatic approach to predicting radionuclide activity concentrations in wildlife and is similar to that used for screening assessments for the human food chain. The CRwo-media values are most suitable for a screening application where there are several conservative assumptions built into the models which will, to varying extents, compensate for the variable data quality and quantity, and associated uncertainty. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Vornam B.,University of Gottingen | Arkhipov A.,Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety | Finkeldey R.,University of Gottingen
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2012

In the Chernobyl exclusion zone forest trees have to tolerate and to adapt to ionizing radiation, therefore the molecular basis of their adaptive responses is of the utmost interest. Based on SNP analysis and real time PCR nucleotide diversity and expression profiles of gene fragments of catalase (Cat) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which are known as radical scavenging genes, were analysed in the needles of irradiated pine trees of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In acutely and chronically irradiated trees (50 years old) planted before the accident a higher nucleotide diversity of Cat and more somatic mutations were found compared to their control. Chronically irradiated trees (20 years old) planted after the accident showed a similar nucleotide diversity of Cat compared to their control and in both collectives one somatic mutation was found. The nucleotide diversity of GPx was higher in all analysed trees compared to Cat. No somatic mutation events were found in GPx. For both gene fragments, no association between the received dose in a tree and the nucleotide diversity and mutation events was detected. The expression profiles of Cat and GPx in acutely and chronically and in chronically irradiated trees were similar. Compared to their corresponding control collectives, Cat was up-regulated and GPx slightly down-regulated. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Oskolkov B.Y.,Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety | Bondarkov M.D.,Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety | Zinkevich L.I.,National Agency of Ukraine for the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Management | Proskura N.I.,National Agency of Ukraine for the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone Management | And 2 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2011

Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. Copyright © 2011 Health Physics Society.

Beresford N.A.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Beresford N.A.,University of Salford | Gaschak S.,Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety | Maksimenko A.,Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety | Wood M.D.,University of Salford
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2016

Protected species are the focus of many radiological environmental assessments. However, the lack of radioecological data for many protected species presents a significant international challenge. Furthermore, there are legislative restrictions on destructive sampling of protected species to obtain such data. Where data are not available, extrapolations are often made from 'similar' species but there has been little attempt to validate this approach.In this paper we present what, to our knowledge, is the first study purposefully designed to test the hypothesis that radioecological data for unprotected species can be used to estimate conservative radioecolgical parameters for protected species; conservatism being necessary to ensure that there is no significant impact.The study was conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Consequently, we are able to present data for Pu isotopes in terrestrial wildlife. There has been limited research on Pu transfer to terrestrial wildlife which contrasts with the need to assess radiation exposure of wildlife to Pu isotopes around many nuclear facilities internationally.Our results provide overall support for the hypothesis that data for unprotected species can be used to adequately assess the impacts for ionising radiation on protected species. This is demonstrated for a range of mammalian and avian species. However, we identify one case, the shrew, for which data from other ground-dwelling small mammals would not lead to an appropriately conservative assessment of radiation impact. This indicates the need to further test our hypothesis across a range of species and ecosystems, and/or ensure adequate conservatism within assessments.The data presented are of value to those trying to more accurately estimate the radiation dose to wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, helping to reduce the considerable uncertainty in studies reporting dose-effect relationships for wildlife.A video abstract for this paper is available from: http://bit.ly/1JesKPc. © 2016 The Authors.

Gashchak S.,Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety | Estok P.,Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety | Kravchenko K.,Eszterhazy Karoly College
Hystrix | Year: 2015

Long distance recaptures of banded bats from Eastern European countries (Belarus, Ukraine, European part of Russia) have been lacking for decades. The last transboundary recapture was recorded in the late 1960s. We herewith report a new long-distance recapture of a noctule Nyctalus noctula). The fresh carcass of a ringed adult female noctule was found in South-East Hungary on 22 May 2014. The bat was mist-netted and ringed on 31 May 2011 on the territory of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, in North Ukraine. The direct distance between the two locations is 800 km. © 2015, Associazione Teriologica Italiana.

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