Jung B.-G.,Chonnam National University |
Ko J.-H.,Chonnam National University |
Cho S.-J.,Chonnam National University |
Koh H.-B.,Chonnam National University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science | Year: 2010
Maesil (Prunus mume) has long been used as a traditional drug and healthy food in East Asian countries. It possesses a number of beneficial biological activities including potential antimicrobial effects against pathogens. Probiotics also have antibacterial effects. Moreover, some probiotics have an important role in regulating the immune system. The present study evaluated the immune enhancing effects of fermented Msesil with probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus) in mice, especially against Bordetella bronchiseptica, as an initial step towards the development of feed supplements for the promotion of immune activity and prevention of disease, especially in pigs. Continuous ingestion of fermented Masesil with probiotics markedly increased the macrophage ratio in peripheral blood and the T lymphocyte ratio in the spleen. In addition, antibody production against formalin-killed B. bronchiseptica significantly increased in the mice fed fermented Maesil compared with the control group. The number of leukocytes was significantly higher in the bronchio-alveolar lavage obtained from the fermented Maesil-fed animals compared to it in the control group at day 3 (maximal peak time) after experimental B. bronchiseptica infection. Moreover, at 7 day post-infection, relative messenger RNA expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ were significantly increased in splenocytes of mice fed fermented Maesil compared with those in the control group. Taken together, these findings suggest that feed containing fermented Maesil with probiotics enhances immune activity in mice, especially against B. bronchiseptica, via the potent stimulation of non-specific immune responses.
Kim H.J.,Andong National University |
Kim H.J.,Cheonan Yonam College |
Jung J.,Andong National University |
Kim M.-S.,Seoul National University |
And 3 more authors.
Genome | Year: 2015
Platycodon grandiflorum, generally known as the bellflower or balloon flower, is the only species in the genus Platycodon of the family Campanulaceae. Platycodon plants have been traditionally used as a medicinal crop in East Asia for their antiphlogistic, antitussive, and expectorant properties. Despite these practical uses, marker-assisted selection and molecular breeding in platycodons have lagged due to the lack of genetic information on this genus. In this study, we performed RNA-seq analysis of three platycodon accessions to develop molecular markers and explore genetic diversity. First, genic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were retrieved and compared; dinucleotide motifs were the most abundant repeats (39%-40%) followed by trinucleotide (25%-31%), tetranucleotide (1.5%-1.9%), and pentanucleotide (0.3%-1.0%) repeats. The result of in silico SSR analysis, three SSR markers were detected and showed possibility to distinguish three platycodon accessions. After several filtering procedures, 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to design 40 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. Twelve of these PCR-based markers were validated as highly polymorphic and utilized to investigate genetic diversity in 21 platycodon accessions collected from various regions of South Korea. Collectively, the 12 markers yielded 35 alleles, with an average of 3 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.087 to 0.693, averaging 0.373 per locus. Since platycodon genetics have not been actively studied, the sequence information and the DNA markers generated from our research have the potential to contribute to further genetic improvements, genomic studies, and gene discovery in this genus. © 2015 Published by NRC Research Press.
PubMed | Gyeongsang National University, Cheonan Yonam College and Seoul National University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The New phytologist | Year: 2016
Plants have evolved hundreds of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich domain proteins (NLRs) as potential intracellular immune receptors, but the evolutionary mechanism leading to the ability to recognize specific pathogen effectors is elusive. Here, we cloned Pvr4 (a Potyvirus resistance gene in Capsicum annuum) and Tsw (a Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance gene in Capsicum chinense) via a genome-based approach using independent segregating populations. The genes both encode typical NLRs and are located at the same locus on pepper chromosome 10. Despite the fact that these two genes recognize completely different viral effectors, the genomic structures and coding sequences of the two genes are strikingly similar. Phylogenetic studies revealed that these two immune receptors diverged from a progenitor gene of a common ancestor. Our results suggest that sequence variations caused by gene duplication and neofunctionalization may underlie the evolution of the ability to specifically recognize different effectors. These findings thereby provide insight into the divergent evolution of plant immune receptors.
PubMed | Chungnam National University, National Institute of Animal Science and Cheonan Yonam College
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and technology | Year: 2015
The objectives of this study were thus to identify most significant factors that determine milk component yield (MCY) using a meta-analysis and, if possible, to develop equations to predict MCY using variables that can be easily measured in the field. A literature database was constructed based on the research articles published in the Journal of Dairy Science from Oct., 2007 till May, 2010. The database consisted of a total of 442 observed means for MCY from 118 studies. The candidate factors that determine MCY were those which can be routinely measured in the field (e.g. DMI, BW, dietary forage content, chemical composition of diets). Using a simple linear regression, the best equations for predicting milk fat yield(MFY) and milk protein yield (MPY) were MFY=0.351 (0.068)+0.038 (0.003) DMI (R(2)=0.27), and MPY=0.552 (0.071)+0.031 (0.002) DMI - 0.004 (0.001) FpDM (%, forage as a percentage of dietary DM) (R(2)=0.38), respectively. The best equation for predicting milk fat content (%) explained only 12% of variations in milk fat content, and none of a single variable can explain more than 5% of variations in milk protein content. We concluded that among the tested variables, DMI was the only significant factor that affects MFY and both DMI and FpDM significantly affect MPY. However, predictability of linear equations was relatively low. Further studies are needed to identify other variables that can predict milk component yield more accurately.
Lee G.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service NVRQS |
Han D.,Cheonan Yonam College |
Song J.-Y.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service NVRQS |
Lee Y.-S.,Seoul National University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2010
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main causative agent of porcine circovirus-associated disease, such as post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which involves lymphocyte depletion. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of lymphoid depletion. To gain insight into the interaction between virus and host cells, microarrays were used to analyse changes in genomic expression in lymph nodes following PCV2 infection of pigs, together with negative controls. Total RNA was subjected to microarray analysis with an Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array GeneChip. Of the 23 256 pig genes arrayed on a chip, 160 genes showed altered expression after infection (upregulated, 64; downregulated, 96). The altered genomic expression of 18 selected genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression changes of numerous genes involved in innate immune defence (TLR1, CD14 and CD180), immunosuppressed responses (FGL2 and GPNMB), pro-inflammatory signals (galectin-3) and fasting processes (ANGPTL-4) indicate that PCV2 has developed an intricate mechanism to cause immunosuppression, inflammatory cell infiltration and weight loss in pigs. The results of this study provide a basis for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of PCV2 infection. © 2010 SGM.
Kwon S.,Seoul National University |
Choi G.J.,Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology |
Kim K.S.,Seoul National University |
Kwon H.J.,Cheonan Yonam College
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology | Year: 2014
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of electron beam irradiation on control of Botrytis cinerea and postharvest quality of cut roses. Electron beam doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1, 2, 10, and 20 kGy were applied with a 10-MeV linear electron beam accelerator (EB Tech, Korea). Electron beams inhibited spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea with increasing irradiation doses. Conidia of B. cinerea were more tolerant to irradiation than were mycelia: the effective irradiation doses for 50% inhibition (ED50) of spore germination and mycelial growth were 2.02 kGy and 0.89 kGy, respectively. In addition, electron beam irradiation was more effective in reducing mycelial growth of B. cinerea at 10°C than at 20°C. Analysis of in vivo antifungal activity revealed that elevated irradiation doses exhibited increased control efficacy for tomato gray mold. Flower longevity and fresh weight of cut roses decreased when the irradiation dose was increased. In addition, flower bud opening tended to be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. Although ‘Decoration’, ‘Il se Bronze’, ‘Queen Bee’, and ‘Revue’ roses tolerated and maintained overall postharvest quality up to 0.4 kGy, ‘Vivian’ did not, demonstrating that the irradiation sensitivity of cut roses varies according to cultivar. Ⓒ 2014 Korean Society for Horticultural Science.
Lee G.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service |
Han D.,Cheonan Yonam College |
Song J.-Y.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service |
Kim J.-H.,Jeju National University |
Yoon S.,National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2011
Swine hepatitis E virus (sHEV) has been discovered to be almost ubiquitous in pigs, and is antigenically and genetically related to human HEV. Proteomic analysis was used to identify altered protein expression in swine liver, using two-dimensional electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. A total of 10 protein spots exhibited significant alterations in the sHEV-infected organ. The upregulation of apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and downregulation of ferritin heavy chain were confirmed by Western analysis and by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The elevated expression of Apo E may provide a novel insight into molecular responses to HEV infection in swine. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lee L.N.,Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies |
Lee L.N.,University of Oxford |
Dias P.,Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies |
Han D.,Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies |
And 7 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2010
Secondary bacterial infections that follow infection with influenza virus result in considerable morbidity and mortality in young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals and may also significantly increase mortality in normal healthy adults during influenza pandemics. We herein describe a mouse model for investigating the interaction between influenza virus and the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. Sequential infection with sublethal doses of influenza and H. influenzae resulted in synergy between the two pathogens and caused mortality in immunocompetent adult wild-type mice. Lethality was dependent on the interval between administration of the bacteria and virus, and bacterial growth was prolonged in the lungs of dual-infected mice, although influenza virus titers were unaffected. Dual infection induced severe damage to the airway epithelium and confluent pneumonia, similar to that observed in victims of the 1918 global influenza pandemic. Increased bronchial epithelial cell death was observed as early as 1 day after bacterial inoculation in the dual-infected mice. Studies using knockout mice indicated that lethality occurs via a mechanism that is not dependent on Fas, CCR2, CXCR3, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor, or Toll-like receptor-4 and does not require T or B cells. This model suggests that infection with virulent strains of influenza may predispose even immunocompetent individuals to severe illness on secondary infection with H. influenzae by a mechanism that involves innate immunity, but does not require tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, or signaling via Toll-like receptor-4. Copyright © American Society for Investigative Pathology.
PubMed | Konkuk University, National Institute of Animal Science, Kangwon National University and Cheonan Yonam College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences | Year: 2014
This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45) and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45) were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP) and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn)/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05). Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.
Cho S.-C.,Seowon University |
Kang B.-S.,Cheonan Yonam College
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013
The aim of this study was to identify the optimal ingredient-mixing ratio of Job's-tear and wheat flour subjected to extrusion. A modified distance-based mixture design analysis was chosen for the experimental design. The results showed that the bending failure force, the a-value, and the water absorbtion index (WAI) value had no correlation with the mixture ratio of Job's-tear and wheat flour. However, the diameter of the extrudates, the L- and b-values, and the water solubility index (WSI) value were all found to be correlated to the mixture ratio. While the first three values were determined using a linear model, the WSI value was determined using a quadratic model. The diameter and color had an inverse correlation to the mixture ratio: the higher the ratio of Job's-tear to wheat flour, the lower the diameter and darker the color. The L- and b-values were found to change in accordance with the mixture ratio of Job's-tear to wheat flour. The lowest WSI value was obtained at a 40:60 ratio of Job's-tear to wheat.