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Soundarrajan A.,PSG College of Technology | Sumathi S.,PSG College of Technology | Sundar C.,PSG College of Technology | Sundar C.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd
IAENG International Journal of Computer Science | Year: 2010

In this paper, an evolutionary computing approach for determining the optimal values for the proportional-integralderivative (PID) controller parameters of load frequency control (LFC) and Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) system of single area power system using the particle swarm optimization technique is presented. The LFC loop controls real power & frequency and AVR loop controls reactive power and voltage. Due to rising and falling power demand, the real and reactive power balance is harmed; hence frequency and voltage get deviated from nominal value. This necessitates designing of an accurate and fast controller to maintain the system parameters at nominal value. The main purpose of system generation control is to balance the system generation against the load and losses so that the desired frequency and power interchange between neighboring systems are maintained. This work demonstrates the application of PSO method to search efficiently optimal PID controller parameters of LFC and AVR system. The proposed method had superior features like, stable convergence characteristics, easy implementation and good computational efficiency. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed system in terms of reduced settling time, overshoot and oscillations. The results are compared with conventional PID, Fuzzy and GA based controllers.


Sherly E.D.,Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory | Vijaya J.J.,Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory | Kennedy L.J.,Vellore Institute of Technology | Meenakshisundaram A.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Lavanya M.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2016

-ZnO nanoparticles were coupled with CuO, NiO, ZrO2 and CeO2 in 2: 1 molar ratio by a microwave assisted one pot solution combustion synthesis. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO and coupled oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. XRD data revealed the presence of two phases in the coupled oxides. Photocatalytic activity of pure ZnO and ZnO coupled oxides was compared for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) under near UV light (365 nm) irradiation and the rate constant (k) values were calculated from the kinetic studies. The coupled oxide, Zn2Ce with ZnO and CeO2 in 2: 1 molar ratio showed maximum degradation efficiency due to the efficient interparticle electron transfer between ZnO and CeO2. © 2016 Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers, Seoul, Korea


Hemanandh J.,Sathyabama University | Narayanan K.V.,Sathyabama University | Lavanya M.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Meenakshi Sundaram A.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment | Year: 2016

The present study investigates the use of hydrotreated vegetable oil as fuel and analyzes the emission and performance characteristics of the kirloskar Direct Injection 4 - stroke Diesel engine, air-cooled single cylinder, 4.4 kw, constant speed of 1500 rpm, and compression ratio 17.5:1. The Refined Palmolein oil was hydrotreated using Ni-Mo/Al2O3 as catalyst at 60 bar and 360°C. The hydrotreated refined palmolein oil was used as a fuel. The properties of petro diesel, FAME, and hydro treated refined palmolein oil were compared with Euro IV Indian standards. The experiments were conducted systematically by blending the hydro treated refined palmolein oil by 25% (B25) and 100% (B100) by volume and at different loads such as 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. The emission (CO, HC, NOx and FSN), performance (BSFC and BTE) and combustion analysis were measured. The experimental results showed that there was reduction in CO, HC, NOx and BSFC while there was increase in BTE when compared with petro diesel fuel. The combustion pressure and heat release rate (HRR) for B100 were almost equal to those of diesel. No modification was required in the diesel engine.


Valavarasu G.,Hindustan Petroleum Corporation | Sairam B.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2013

The isomerization process is gaining importance in the present refining context due to limitations on gasoline benzene, aromatics, and olefin contents. The isomerization process upgrades the octane number of light naphtha fractions and also simultaneously reduces benzene content by saturation of the benzene fraction. Isomerization complements catalytic reforming process in upgrading the octane number of refinery naphtha streams. Isomerization is a simple and cost-effective process for octane enhancement compared with other octane-improving processes. Isomerate product contains very low sulfur and benzene, making it ideal blending component in refinery gasoline pool. Due to the significance of isomerization to the modern refining industry, it becomes essential to review the process with respect to catalysts, catalyst poisons, reactions, thermodynamics, and process developments. The present research thrust in this field along with future scope of work is also discussed briefly. The isomerization process is compared with another well-known refinery process called the catalytic reforming process. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Valavarasu G.,Hindustan Petroleum Corporation | Sairam B.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Pilot plant experiments were conducted over an industrial hydrotreating/hydrocracking catalyst system using vacuum gas oil fraction obtained from a refinery crude distillation unit. Extensive pilot plant data were generated on the performance of industrial hydrocracking catalyst system with respect to conversion, product yields, and product quality at various operating conditions. The pilot plant experiments were carried out in a dual-reactor hydrotreating pilot plant system with downflow mode of operation. The temperature varied from 360 to 400°C and liquid hourly space velocity varied from 0.8 to 2.4 hr-1, keeping a constant pressure of 170 kg/cm2 and H2/HC feed ratio of 845 L/L. The hydrocracked total liquid product was distilled in a true boiling point distillation unit to obtain yields and qualities of different fractions such as naphtha, kerosene, diesel, and unconverted oil. The effect of operating conditions on the performance of the hydrocracking catalyst system was discussed in detail. The kinetics of hydrocracking reaction was studied using a simple first-order reaction and a complex four-lump reaction system and the kinetic parameters were reported. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Lavanya M.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Lavanya M.,Anna University | Meenakshisundaram A.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Renganathan S.,Anna University | And 4 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2016

Biocrude was produced from Tetraselmis sp. - a marine alga and Arthrospira platensis - a fresh water alga using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. Considering the constraints in cultivating algae for replacing 100% petrocrude, this study evaluated the option of blending and co-processing algal biocrude with petrocrude. Biocrudes obtained from algal strains cultivated in fresh water and sea water were blended with petrocrude at 10% concentration and the characteristics were studied using FT-IR and CNS SIMDIST. True Boiling Point (TBP) distillation was carried out to assess yields and properties of distillates of blended biocrudes. Biocrudes obtained from both algae were light crudes and the blended crudes recorded distillate yields of 76-77 wt%. The yield of light naphtha fraction of biocrude blends was 29-30%; whereas the yield of diesel fraction was about 18%. This study proposes blending and co-processing of algal biocrude with petrocrude to produce drop-in biofuels. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Rajan N.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Selvavathi V.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Sairam B.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Krishnan J.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Some of the refineries in India produce asphalt by blending propane deasphalting (PDA) pitch and heavy extract. This investigation reports the rheological and chemical characterization of various blends made with PDA pitch and heavy extract. The main objective is to develop an understanding on the influence of asphaltene change on the changes in the rheological properties under all aged conditions. Three blend proportions were manufactured using three different crude sources, and all the blends were subjected to short- and long-term aging. All the blends were tested for steady shear, creep and recovery, and stress relaxation properties. A chemical composition analysis of all the blended asphalt samples was carried out under all three aging conditions. It was seen that the proportion of PDA pitch considerably controls the rheological properties and that the kinetics of short-term aging are completely different when compared to long-term aging for blended asphalt.


Venkatesh R.P.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Bhaskar M.,Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd | Sakthivel S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Selvaraju N.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Velan M.,Anna University
Petroleum Science and Technology | Year: 2010

In petroleum refineries, estimation of rate of catalyst deactivation is important in order to evaluate and compare the performances of different hydrotreating catalysts. However, in hydrotreating operation, catalyst deactivation is slow due to coke formation at normal operating conditions and usually catalyst activity drops significantly after 12 to 18 months period. In the present work, a testing method is developed and employed to a commercial hydrotreating catalyst for a period of 300 hrs in a pilot plant with diesel as a feedstock and by using accelerated deactivation technique. Kinetic parameters of hydrodesulfurization reaction are estimated by measuring the product sulfur before deactivation level and at the end of 100 hrs, 200 hrs and 300 hrs of deactivation. It is found that the value of kinetic parameters decreases with increase in time on stream. The quality of products hydrotreated at different levels of deactivation is also studied in the present work. The value of saturates are found to decrease with time on stream, whereas the value of carbon residue and polyaromatic hydrocarbons found to increase with time on stream.


PubMed | Anna University, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd, Muradel Pty Ltd and Aban Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd.
Type: | Journal: Bioresource technology | Year: 2016

Biocrude was produced from Tetraselmis sp. - a marine alga and Arthrospira platensis - a fresh water alga using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process. Considering the constraints in cultivating algae for replacing 100% petrocrude, this study evaluated the option of blending and co-processing algal biocrude with petrocrude. Biocrudes obtained from algal strains cultivated in fresh water and sea water were blended with petrocrude at 10% concentration and the characteristics were studied using FT-IR and CNS SIMDIST. True Boiling Point (TBP) distillation was carried out to assess yields and properties of distillates of blended biocrudes. Biocrudes obtained from both algae were light crudes and the blended crudes recorded distillate yields of 76-77 wt%. The yield of light naphtha fraction of biocrude blends was 29-30%; whereas the yield of diesel fraction was about 18%. This study proposes blending and co-processing of algal biocrude with petrocrude to produce drop-in biofuels.

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