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Xu Z.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Ji S.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | Ji S.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal | Cai Z.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

Field observations, deformation and fabric analyses, and precise age data acquired by zircon SHRIMP, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar dating methods have yielded new constraints on the kinematics and dynamics of the Namche Barwa Syntaxis (NBS) which is the eastern corner of the Himalaya. A two-stage model has been established to explain the formation and evolution of the NBS. The northward indentation of the Indian plate beneath the Lhasa terrane began at 55-40Ma, and crustal materials at this corner were subducted to depths >70km where they experienced HP (UHP?) metamorphism. Since 40Ma, large-scale, right-lateral strike-slip along the Sagaing fault has accommodated the rapid northward movement of the eastern Indian plate corner with respect to the Indochina block. This caused significant and progressive bending of the Indus-Yarlung suture zone (IYSZ) such that it became the Dongjiu-Milin left-lateral, strike-slip, shear zone (DMSZ) in the west and the Aniqiao-Motuo right-lateral, strike-slip, shear zone (AMSZ) in the east. Both zones underwent strong mylonitization. Meanwhile, the HP (UHP?) metamorphic rocks were rapidly exhumed, first into the deep crust at 22-18Ma and then to the shallow crust to form an antiformal dome at 6-2Ma. Our model provides new insight into the processes of post-collisional crustal thickening related to the formation of the Himalayan orogenic belt. © 2011 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Chen J.-L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Zhao W.-X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Xu J.-F.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry | Wang B.-D.,Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources | Kang Z.-Q.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Gondwana Research | Year: 2012

It is generally believed that Cenozoic potassic and ultrapotassic volcanic rocks of the Tibetan Plateau were generated by partial melting of an enriched mantle region or lower crustal materials. The Miocene Bugasi volcanic rocks (BVR) in the western part of the Lhasa block are composed mainly of trachyandesites and trachytes, both of which belong to the shoshonite series. The trachytes show somewhat transitional compositions between the mantle-derived trachyandesites of the BVR and the crust-derived potassic rocks of Konglongxiang, most evident in their Sr, Ba, and Ni concentrations, Nb/Ta, Rb/Sr, Th/Nb, Zr/Nb, and Ba/Rb trace element ratios, and Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. These features, coupled with the relatively high Cr and Ni concentrations and Mg#, suggest that the trachytes are the product of mixing between mantle-derived and lower crust-derived melts. © 2011 International Association for Gondwana Research.


Zheng C.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | He J.,Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources | Wang Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Wang M.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Huang Z.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Geobacillus pallidus XS2 and XS3 were isolated from oil contaminated soil samples in Yumen oilfield, China, and were able to produce bioemulsifiers on different hydrocarbons. Biodegradation assays exhibited that approximately 70% of PAH (250. mg/L) or 85% of crude oil (500. mg/L) was removed by the thermophilic bacteria after 20. days. The bioemulsifiers of the two strains were isolated and obtained a productive yield of 4.24 ± 0.08 and 3.82 ± 0.11. g/L, respectively. GPC analysis revealed that the number-average molecular weights (M n) of the two bioemulsifiers were 271,785. Da and 526,369. Da, with PDI values of 1.104 and 1.027, respectively. Chemical composition studies exhibited that the bioemulsifier XS2 consisted of carbohydrates (68.6%), lipids (22.7%) and proteins (8.7%) while the bioemulsifier XS3 was composed by carbohydrates (41.1%), lipids (47.6%) and proteins (11.3%). Emulsification assays approved the effectiveness of bioemulsifiers over a wide range of temperature, pH and salinity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhu D.-C.,China University of Geosciences | Zhao Z.-D.,China University of Geosciences | Niu Y.,China University of Geosciences | Niu Y.,Durham University | And 6 more authors.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2011

The Lhasa Terrane in southern Tibet has long been accepted as the last geological block accreted to Eurasia before its collision with the northward drifting Indian continent in the Cenozoic, but its lithospheric architecture, drift and growth histories and the nature of its northern suture with Eurasia via the Qiangtang Terrane remain enigmatic. Using zircon in situ U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic and bulk-rock geochemical data of Mesozoic-Early Tertiary magmatic rocks sampled along four north-south traverses across the Lhasa Terrane, we show that the Lhasa Terrane has ancient basement rocks of Proterozoic and Archean ages (up to 2870Ma) in its centre with younger and juvenile crust (Phanerozoic) accreted towards its both northern and southern edges. This finding proves that the central Lhasa subterrane was once a microcontinent. This continent has survived from its long journey across the Paleo-Tethyan Ocean basins and has grown at the edges through magmatism resulting from oceanic lithosphere subduction towards beneath it during its journey and subsequent collisions with the Qiangtang Terrane to the north and with the Indian continent to the south. Zircon Hf isotope data indicate significant mantle source contributions to the generation of these granitoid rocks (e.g., ~50-90%, 0-70%, and 30-100% to the Mesozoic magmatism in the southern, central, and northern Lhasa subterranes, respectively). We suggest that much of the Mesozoic magmatism in the Lhasa Terrane may be associated with the southward Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan seafloor subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane, which likely began in the Middle Permian (or earlier) and ceased in the late Early Cretaceous, and that the significant changes of zircon εHf(t) at ~113 and ~52Ma record tectonomagmatic activities as a result of slab break-off and related mantle melting events following the Qiangtang-Lhasa amalgamation and India-Lhasa amalgamation, respectively. These results manifest the efficacy of zircons as a chronometer (U-Pb dating) and a geochemical tracer (Hf isotopes) in understanding the origin and histories of lithospheric plates and in revealing the tectonic evolution of old orogenies in the context of plate tectonics. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Ni H.-Y.,Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Debris flows usually occur abruptly and rapidly in mountainous areas and it is difficult to observe their occurrence progress. Therefore, an experiment has become an important method to study debris flow initiation mechanism in recent years. In this paper, taking Xiongjia Gully in SW China as an example and on the basis of artificial rainfall experiment, the author has studied the initiation of gully-type debris flow. Experiment results indicate some relation between rainfall intensity and gully erosion, failure mode of soil mass, initiation mechanism and characteristics of debris flow. Based on several groups of experiments, conclusions were drawn as follows: (1) Under strong precipitation, the infiltration rate and soil water content in different depths are inversely proportional to the rainfall intensity. Intense rainfall favors the overland flow, gully runoff and erosion, but is not conducive to water infiltration. (2) Slope failure modes and initiation mechanism of debris flow vary with different rainfall and runoff conditions. Under the condition with the rainfall intensity of 55 mm/h, the slope failure mode presents a soil liquefaction and landslide. Accordingly, the debris flow initiation mechanism belongs to landslide transformation. However, under the condition of intense rainfall and runoff, gully beds are easy to be eroded and slopes are prone to collapse. Then, debris flows occurred with initiation mechanism of entrainment. (3) In terms of debris flow characteristics, the debris flow occurrence process consists of several intermittent flows. In addition, the debris flow magnitude and flow viscosity are not consistent with rainfall intensity. On the contrary, under condition of intense rainfall of 65 and 75 mm/h, debris flows tend to be watery. However, under the rainfall condition of 55 mm/h, the flow viscosity is higher. The experiment results are consistent well with the natural debris flow occurrence from Xioangjia Gully. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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