Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science

Chengdu, China

Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science

Chengdu, China
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Shi Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Hu Y.,Chengdu Agricultural College | Wang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Elzo M.A.,University of Florida | And 3 more authors.
Mitochondrial DNA Part A: DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis | Year: 2017

Tibetan yak (Bos grunniens) inhabiting the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) where the average altitude is 4000 m, is specially adapted to live at these altitudes. Conversely, cattle (B. taurus) has been found to suffer from high-altitude hypertension or heart failure when exposed to these high altitudes. Two mitochondrial genes, MT-ND1 and MT-ND2, encode two subunits of NADH dehydrogenase play an essential role in the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). We sequenced these two mitochondrial genes in two bovine groups (70 Tibetan yaks and 70 Xuanhan cattle) and downloaded 300 sequences of B. taurus (cattle), 93 sequences of B. grunniens (domestic yak), and 2 sequences of B. mutus (wild yak) from NCBI to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptability to hypoxia at high altitudes in yaks compared to cattle. MT-ND1 SNP m.3907 C > T, present in all Tibetan yaks, was positively associated with high-altitude adaptation (p < .0006). Specially, mutation m.3638 A > G present in all cattle, resulting in the termination of transcription, was negatively associated with high-altitude adaptation (p < .0006). Additionally, MT-ND2 SNPs m.4351 G > A and m.5218 C > T also showed positive associations with high-altitude adaptation (p < .0004). MT-ND1 haplotypes H2, H3, H4, H6, and H7 showed positive associations but haplotype H20 had a negative association with high-altitude adaptation (p < .0008). Similarly, MT-ND2 haplotypes Ha1 Ha8, Ha10, and Ha11 were positively associated whereas haplotype Ha2 was negatively associated with adaptability to high-altitudes (p < .0008). Thus, MT-ND1 and MT-ND2 can be considered as candidate genes associated with adaptation to high-altitude environments. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Yang L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Fang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Fang J.,Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases and Environmental Hazards of Sichuan Province | Peng X.,China West Normal University | And 6 more authors.
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2017

The present research was conducted to study the morphology, histology and enzymatic activities of the digestive tract of Gymnocypris eckloni by light and transmission electron microscopes as well as by enzyme assays. The digestive tract of G. eckloni consisted of the oropharyngeal cavity, oesophagus and intestine. The wall of the digestive tract was composed of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa but lacked muscularis mucosa and glands. The stratified epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity and oesophagus contained numerous mucous cells. Taste buds were found in the epithelium of the oropharyngeal cavity. A large number of isolated longitudinal striated muscular bundles were present in the submucosa of the oesophagus. The mucosal epithelium of the intestine was composed of simple columnar cells containing absorptive, goblet and endocrine cells. Numerous mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were observed in the absorptive cells, especially in the anterior intestine. From the anterior to the posterior intestine, the number and length of mucosal folds and microvilli decreased, but the number of goblet cells increased. The intestinal coefficient was 2.38. Maximum trypsin activity was measured in the anterior intestine, while the lowest lipase and amylase activities were tested in the middle and posterior intestines, respectively. The results provided experimental evidence for evaluating physiological condition of G. eckloni digestive tract, which will be useful for improving current rearing practices and diagnoses of digestive tract diseases. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Zhou H.-Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang D.-J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao Y.-B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2017

In order to understand the effects of canopy density on the functional group characteristics of soil macrofauna in Pinus massoniana plantations, we divided the captured soil fauna into five types including xylophages, predators, saprophages, omnivores and fungal feeders. The results showed that 1) Saprozoic feeders had the highest percentage of total individuals, and the omnivores and xylophages occupied higher percentages of total taxa. 2) The individual and group number of the predators, and the group number of xylophages did not change significantly under 0.5-0.6 and then decreased significantly under 0.6-0.9 canopy density. 3) With the increasing canopy density, the individual an dgroup number of predators in litter layer decreased significantly, the saprozoic individual number in 5-10 cm soil layer represented irregular trends. The individual number of xylophage increased with the depth of soil, and the group number in litter layer, the individual and group number in 5-10 cm soil layer decreased significantly. 4) Pielou evenness of xylophage had no significant changes with the canopy density, all the other diversity index of xylophage and saprophage were various with the increasing canopy density. The predatory Simpson index was stable under 0.5-0.8, and then decreased significantly under 0.8-0.9 canopy density. 5) The CCA (canonical correlation analysis) indicated that soil bulk density and moisture content were the main environmental factors affecting functional groups of soil macro fauna. Moisture content greatly impacted on the number of saprophagous individuals. But xylophage and predators were mostly affected by soil bulk density, and the predatory Simpson index was mainly affected by soil pH value and total phosphorus. Our research indicated that the structure of soil macro faunal functional group under 0.7 canopy density was comparatively stable, which would facilitate the maintenance of soil fertility and ecological function in Pinus massonianaplantation. © 2017, Science Press. All right reserved.


Xu P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yan W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | He J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice, and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique to characterize DNA methylation in four male sterile cytoplasms that are widely commercialized in China. In total, 12 pairs of selective primers in combinations of EcoRI and MspI/HpaII amplified 350 bands among four male sterile (A) lines and the corresponding maintainer (B) lines. Sites b1 and b3 were fully methylated only in all the B lines, while b2 was fully methylated only in all the A lines. These results implied a relationship of DNA methylation at these sites specifically with male sterile cytoplasms, as well as male sterility, since the only difference between the A and B lines was the cytoplasm. The DNA methylation was markedly affected by male sterile cytoplasms. WA-type and Yinshui-type cytoplasms affected the methylation to a much greater degree than G-type and D-type cytoplasms, as indicated by the number and degree of methylated sites, ratio of methylated sites, number of fully methylated sites, ratio of fully methylated sites, and polymorphism between A and B lines for these cytoplasms. The genetic distance between the cytoplasm and nucleus for the WA-type is much greater than for G- and D-types because the former is between wild and cultivated species and the latter is within indica subspecies between African and Asian cultivars. This difference in genetic distance may be responsible for the variation in methylation which we observed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Dong H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu J.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

The essential oil, ethanol extract and its solvent fractions, petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (BF), and aqueous fraction (AF), from Chuanminshen violaceum were measured for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. A qualitative analysis of the components of the essential oil and solvent fractions were then performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As a result, essential oil showed better antioxidant activity than ethanol extract and its solvent fractions. Among the solvent fractions, the EAF showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging ability (0.185 ± 0.008 mg/mL) and reducing power while the CF showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (0.307 ± 0.011 mg/mL). And both of them had high phenolic content (p<. 0.05) compared to other fractions. GC-MS analyses of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 30 compounds, representing 94.56% of the total oil. The major components were falcarinol (57.02%), 1,7-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-Spiro[4.5]dec-6-en-8-one (9.08%) and geranyl tiglate (7.54%). In addition, 53 constituents were identified in the fractions including the biological activity-containing compounds such as bergapten, ficusin, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-Pyran-4-one, and falcarinol. Consequently, the antioxidant activities of the essential oil and solvent fractions of ethanol extract are not only contributed by phenolics but also related to other constituents. Based on these results, the essential oil and fractions of ethanol extract from C. violaceum are promising sources of natural antioxidants. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Li J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li J.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | Zhao X.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Gilbert E.R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 7 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 (APOBEC2) plays an important role in regulating and maintaining muscle development in mammals. In this study, we evaluated APOBEC2 mRNA abundance and protein expression and the results indicated that APOBEC2 mRNA was most abundant in skeletal and cardiac muscle, with relatively low expression in the gonads, gizzard and subcutaneous fat tissues of chickens. Immunoreactive APOBEC2 was localized to the cell nucleus of developing myocardium and skeletal myofibers. There were significant differences in mRNA and protein abundance among ages, tissues, and between males and females. In conclusion, APOBEC2 was expressed as the greatest in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle where it localized to the nucleus. Thus, APOBEC2 may play an important role in muscle development in chickens. © 2014.


Liu Y.,Southwest forestry University | Zhang B.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | Xie Y.,Southwest forestry University | Yang S.,Southwest forestry University
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Sclerodermus harmandi (Buysson) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is a generalist parasitoid that has been mass-produced and released for biological control of many agricultural and forest pests in China. However, few studies have examined the potential non-target risks of this parasitoid in targeted agriculture or forest ecosystems. In this study, we demonstrate that S. harmandi successfully attacks Triaspis sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an important native natural enemy of the pine weevil pest Pissodes punctatus Langor et Zhang in Yunnan Province of China. When exposed to older larvae of Triaspis sp. at three different parasitoid-to-host group sizes (1:1, 2:2 and 3:3) with a constant 1:1 parasitoid-to-host ratio, S. harmandi successfully attacked 100%, 75% and 83.3% of the test larvae, respectively. All life stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) of S. harmandi were observed on Triaspis sp. larvae, indicating that Triaspis sp. are suitable for the completion of S. harmandi development. There were no significant differences in the number of S. harmandi progeny produced among the different parasitoid-to-host exposure treatments. Immature stages of S. harmandi on parasitized Triaspis sp. took 25.4 days to complete their development (the egg stage: 3.6 days, the larval stage: 5.0 days, the pupal stage: 16.5 days). Together, results from our study indicate that mass-releases of S. harmandi for biological control of forest pests in Yunnan Province may adversely affect some valuable non-target insects such as Triaspis sp. We suggest that the potential non-target risk of S. harmandi be considered in future augmentative release biological control programmes against forest pests. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Qi G.,Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding | Qi G.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | Hu Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Owens J.R.,Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2015

Understanding how population density relates to habitat underlies basic ecological theory and is pertinent to conservation issues. Chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii) are an endangered steppe-dwelling ungulate endemic to the Tibetan plateau. To prepare effective conservation and management strategies for this species, we require detailed knowledge of the relationship between group size and habitat conditions. We surveyed the Chang Tang region of Tibet and used data collected along vehicular line transects to record the presence and group size of chiru. Using ecological niche factor analysis, we inferred the ecological requirements of chiru in relation to a large number of topographic, vegetation, and anthropogenic variables. We used these analyses to estimate habitat suitability models and describe their optimum range. Areas favored by chiru had moderate grazing by domestic animals, gentle slopes, and villages present only at lower altitudes. Chiru showed a high level of specialization regarding the presence of villages and gentle slopes, and were negatively associated with areas of those easily accessed by people. We suggest new management measures for the long-term conservation of chiru. Specifically, we focus on the rehabilitation of natural plains for grazing by chiru, recognizing that conservation of large groups may require special efforts. For smaller groups and solitary chiru, the large tracts of unsuitable or marginal areas may expose them to different threats that could pose greater challenges for conservation management. © 2015 The Wildlife Society.


Sui L.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science | Sui L.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Liu Y.F.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Huang H.W.,CAS South China Botanical Garden
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Red-fleshed kiwifruit germplasm, in particular those in wild, is important for kiwifruit breeding. In this study, we presented the results of recent investigations on the naturally distributed red-fleshed kiwifruit resources in China. In total, 52 wild accessions and two cultivars of red-fleshed kiwifruit germplasm belonging to three Actinidia taxa (A. Arguta, A. chinensis and A. Deliciosa) were collected. All these collections, distributed mainly in Hunan, Hubei, Henan, Jiangxi, Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces of China. The collected accessions have rich variation in both fruit traits and genetic diversity which evaluated by genomic-wide AFLP markers. AFLP analysis using four primer combinations shown a total of 259 polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphic bands was 90.56%. Genetic similarity based on AFLP markers ranged from 0.568 to 0.883, with an average of 0.714. UPGMA cluster and Principal coordinate analysis separated 54 accessions into four major groups. Accessions of red-fleshed kiwifruit in A. Arguta grouped together, accessions in A. chinensis and A. Deliciosa had closely genetic relationship and would be clustered preferentially related to their geographical origin. A significant though moderate correlation (r=0.581, P<0.001) was observed between AFLP and morphological data. Both AFLP markers and morphological traits could be used to characterize red-fleshed kiwifruit germplasm, and would be valuable for germplasm management and utilization.


Shi X.,Hangzhou Normal University | Shi X.,Ocean University of China | Meng Q.,Hangzhou Normal University | Meng Q.,Ocean University of China | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Morphology | Year: 2014

A limnetic peritrichous ciliate, Epistylis plicatilis Ehrenberg, 1831, was collected from a freshwater ditch beside Moshan Hill, Wuhan, China. Its morphology, infraciliature, and morphogenesis were investigated based on specimens examined in vivo, following staining with protargol and by scanning electron microscopy. The characteristics of the Wuhan population of E. plicatilis are as follows: 1) colonial, each colony typically comprising 30-50 individuals, with a dichotomously branched, noncontractile stalk; 2) fully expanded zooids measure 90-155 × 30-50 μm in vivo; 3) a series of 6 or 7 conspicuous folds appear in the posterior region of the zooid when it contracts; 4) single horseshoe-shaped macronucleus oriented transversely; 5) single contractile vacuole located in peristomial region on dorsal wall of infundibulum; 6) myoneme system comprises 20-24 longitudinal fibers, peristomial disk fibers as a wreath-like net and peristomial ring fibers; 7) narrowly spaced transverse striations on the surface of the body; 8) infundibular polykineties 1 and 2 are three-rowed, infundibular polykinety 3 is two-rowed; and 9) stomatogenesis is of the buccokinetal type; in the new oral apparatus, infundibular polykineties 2 and 3, the haplokinety, and the germinal kinety all originate from the germinal kinety of the parental oral apparatus whereas the polykinety and infundibular polykinety 1 originate from the parental haplokinety. An improved diagnosis of E. plicatilis is supplied. J. Morphol. 275:882-893, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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