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Xu P.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Xu P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Yan W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | He J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2013

Male sterile cytoplasm plays an important role in hybrid rice, and cytoplasmic effects are sufficiently documented. However, no reports are available on DNA methylation affected by male sterile cytoplasm in hybrid rice. We used a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism technique to characterize DNA methylation in four male sterile cytoplasms that are widely commercialized in China. In total, 12 pairs of selective primers in combinations of EcoRI and MspI/HpaII amplified 350 bands among four male sterile (A) lines and the corresponding maintainer (B) lines. Sites b1 and b3 were fully methylated only in all the B lines, while b2 was fully methylated only in all the A lines. These results implied a relationship of DNA methylation at these sites specifically with male sterile cytoplasms, as well as male sterility, since the only difference between the A and B lines was the cytoplasm. The DNA methylation was markedly affected by male sterile cytoplasms. WA-type and Yinshui-type cytoplasms affected the methylation to a much greater degree than G-type and D-type cytoplasms, as indicated by the number and degree of methylated sites, ratio of methylated sites, number of fully methylated sites, ratio of fully methylated sites, and polymorphism between A and B lines for these cytoplasms. The genetic distance between the cytoplasm and nucleus for the WA-type is much greater than for G- and D-types because the former is between wild and cultivated species and the latter is within indica subspecies between African and Asian cultivars. This difference in genetic distance may be responsible for the variation in methylation which we observed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Dong H.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhang Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu J.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

The essential oil, ethanol extract and its solvent fractions, petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (BF), and aqueous fraction (AF), from Chuanminshen violaceum were measured for the evaluation of antioxidant activity. A qualitative analysis of the components of the essential oil and solvent fractions were then performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As a result, essential oil showed better antioxidant activity than ethanol extract and its solvent fractions. Among the solvent fractions, the EAF showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging ability (0.185 ± 0.008 mg/mL) and reducing power while the CF showed the highest hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (0.307 ± 0.011 mg/mL). And both of them had high phenolic content (p<. 0.05) compared to other fractions. GC-MS analyses of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 30 compounds, representing 94.56% of the total oil. The major components were falcarinol (57.02%), 1,7-dimethyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-Spiro[4.5]dec-6-en-8-one (9.08%) and geranyl tiglate (7.54%). In addition, 53 constituents were identified in the fractions including the biological activity-containing compounds such as bergapten, ficusin, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-Pyran-4-one, and falcarinol. Consequently, the antioxidant activities of the essential oil and solvent fractions of ethanol extract are not only contributed by phenolics but also related to other constituents. Based on these results, the essential oil and fractions of ethanol extract from C. violaceum are promising sources of natural antioxidants. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Yuan Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhao X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Zhu Q.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li J.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | And 8 more authors.
Italian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2015

Lysine is typically the second-limiting amino acid in poultry diets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine concentration on carcass and meat quality traits, and serum parameters in two lines – SD02 and SD03 – which originated from a Chinese local breed, the Erlang Mountainous chicken. Live body weight, carcass traits, meat quality traits (myofibre diameter and density), and serum metabolic markers were measured in high and low dietary lysine groups (HL and LL, respectively) at the end of the starter (1-28 days), grower (29-49 days) and finisher (50-70 days) periods. The results showed that mortality, live weight (LW), myofibre diameter of leg muscle (LFDM) and serum cholesterol (CHO) were greater in HL than LL (P<0.05). The chickens from HL had reduced subcutaneous fat thickness and heart weight than LL (P<0.05). The chickens from line SD02 had greater leg muscle weight, myofibre diameter in breast, and LFDM than line SD03 (P<0.05). The chickens from line SD02 had more serum urea nitrogen and less total proteins than line SD03 (P<0.05). In conclusion, high lysine diets improved slaughter performance and muscle fibre diameter, and SD02 chickens had greater carcass yield and superior meat quality compared with chickens from line SD03. © Y. Yuan et al., 2015.


Yan J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liu J.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | Xiong Y.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2015

Eighty pomelo samples and 80 soil samples were examined using a multielement component test to predict the geographical origins of pomelos produced in 4 regions (Sichuan, Chongqing, Fujian, and Guangxi Provinces) of China. The concentrations of 8 elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Ca, K, and Na were the most abundant elements. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were applied to reduce the dimensionality of the multielement data from 8 to 2 while retaining the highest possible variance. Using PCA and LDA, 69.66% and 91.30%, respectively, of the pomelo origins were classified correctly using multielement variables, along with 67.06% and 83.40% for soil multielement analysis. Results indicated that the LDA method was more effective for geographical origin classification than PCA. The results of the multielement component test demonstrated its capability to screen pomelo origins rapidly. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Zhao X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Ren W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Siegel P.B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Li J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

Housing systems used in the production of poultry meat vary worldwide dependent on climate, land availability, and other resources essential for production. Reported here are comparisons between pen and cage rearing (the housing system, denoted HS), line crosses (LC), two native Chinese lines (EM males were mated to Y1 and Y2 and their offspring denoted as EMY1 and EMY2), and sex in determining broiler traits. At hatch, 320 males and 320 females from each LC (giving a total of 1,280 chicks) were randomly assigned within each subgroup to 16 battery pens. There were 4 replicates for each combination of LC by sex. On d 28, half of the chicks were transferred to indoor floor pens, and the others were raised in single cages from d 29 to 91. Weekly body weights, livability, and feed conversion ratios (FCR) were obtained to d 91, the age at which the broilers were slaughtered for carcass measurements. The caged males and females were heavier (P < 0.05) than their penned counterparts (2,292 vs 2,219 g). Except for females from line EMY1 (94.9%), the livability for each unit from 1 to 28 d, and 29 to 91 d was greater than 95%. Penned EMY2 broilers had the highest FCR (3.02), whereas penned EMY1 broilers had the lowest FCR (2.96) among the housing systems by LC combinations (P < 0.05). Caged chickens had thicker subcutaneous fat (7.24 mm), a higher percentages of abdominal fat (5.01%) and liver mass (3.13%), but lower eviscerated carcass (60.63%) and breast muscle weights (pectoralis major and minor, 17.10%). Males were heavier and had higher percentages of leg muscle (boneless drum plus thigh, 24.22%) and heart muscle (1.08%) than the females (P < 0.05). However, the females had thicker subcutaneous fat (7.19 mm) and higher percentages of carcass weight (87.28%), breast muscle (18.11%), abdominal fat (6.54%), and liver mass (3.15%) than males. Penned females had the highest percentage of breast muscle (18.94%), and caged females had the highest percentage of liver mass (3.72%). Females of EMY1 had the highest percentage of breast muscle (18.40%). Generally, the housing system employed and the sex of the broilers greatly affect the carcass traits. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Li J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Li J.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | Zhao X.-L.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Gilbert E.R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | And 7 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2014

Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic subunit 2 (APOBEC2) plays an important role in regulating and maintaining muscle development in mammals. In this study, we evaluated APOBEC2 mRNA abundance and protein expression and the results indicated that APOBEC2 mRNA was most abundant in skeletal and cardiac muscle, with relatively low expression in the gonads, gizzard and subcutaneous fat tissues of chickens. Immunoreactive APOBEC2 was localized to the cell nucleus of developing myocardium and skeletal myofibers. There were significant differences in mRNA and protein abundance among ages, tissues, and between males and females. In conclusion, APOBEC2 was expressed as the greatest in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle where it localized to the nucleus. Thus, APOBEC2 may play an important role in muscle development in chickens. © 2014.


Qi G.,Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding | Qi G.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry science | Hu Y.,CAS Institute of Zoology | Owens J.R.,Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Management | Year: 2015

Understanding how population density relates to habitat underlies basic ecological theory and is pertinent to conservation issues. Chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii) are an endangered steppe-dwelling ungulate endemic to the Tibetan plateau. To prepare effective conservation and management strategies for this species, we require detailed knowledge of the relationship between group size and habitat conditions. We surveyed the Chang Tang region of Tibet and used data collected along vehicular line transects to record the presence and group size of chiru. Using ecological niche factor analysis, we inferred the ecological requirements of chiru in relation to a large number of topographic, vegetation, and anthropogenic variables. We used these analyses to estimate habitat suitability models and describe their optimum range. Areas favored by chiru had moderate grazing by domestic animals, gentle slopes, and villages present only at lower altitudes. Chiru showed a high level of specialization regarding the presence of villages and gentle slopes, and were negatively associated with areas of those easily accessed by people. We suggest new management measures for the long-term conservation of chiru. Specifically, we focus on the rehabilitation of natural plains for grazing by chiru, recognizing that conservation of large groups may require special efforts. For smaller groups and solitary chiru, the large tracts of unsuitable or marginal areas may expose them to different threats that could pose greater challenges for conservation management. © 2015 The Wildlife Society.


Sui L.,Chengdu Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science | Sui L.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Liu Y.F.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Huang H.W.,CAS South China Botanical Garden
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Red-fleshed kiwifruit germplasm, in particular those in wild, is important for kiwifruit breeding. In this study, we presented the results of recent investigations on the naturally distributed red-fleshed kiwifruit resources in China. In total, 52 wild accessions and two cultivars of red-fleshed kiwifruit germplasm belonging to three Actinidia taxa (A. Arguta, A. chinensis and A. Deliciosa) were collected. All these collections, distributed mainly in Hunan, Hubei, Henan, Jiangxi, Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces of China. The collected accessions have rich variation in both fruit traits and genetic diversity which evaluated by genomic-wide AFLP markers. AFLP analysis using four primer combinations shown a total of 259 polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphic bands was 90.56%. Genetic similarity based on AFLP markers ranged from 0.568 to 0.883, with an average of 0.714. UPGMA cluster and Principal coordinate analysis separated 54 accessions into four major groups. Accessions of red-fleshed kiwifruit in A. Arguta grouped together, accessions in A. chinensis and A. Deliciosa had closely genetic relationship and would be clustered preferentially related to their geographical origin. A significant though moderate correlation (r=0.581, P<0.001) was observed between AFLP and morphological data. Both AFLP markers and morphological traits could be used to characterize red-fleshed kiwifruit germplasm, and would be valuable for germplasm management and utilization.


Shi X.,Hangzhou Normal University | Shi X.,Ocean University of China | Meng Q.,Hangzhou Normal University | Meng Q.,Ocean University of China | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Morphology | Year: 2014

A limnetic peritrichous ciliate, Epistylis plicatilis Ehrenberg, 1831, was collected from a freshwater ditch beside Moshan Hill, Wuhan, China. Its morphology, infraciliature, and morphogenesis were investigated based on specimens examined in vivo, following staining with protargol and by scanning electron microscopy. The characteristics of the Wuhan population of E. plicatilis are as follows: 1) colonial, each colony typically comprising 30-50 individuals, with a dichotomously branched, noncontractile stalk; 2) fully expanded zooids measure 90-155 × 30-50 μm in vivo; 3) a series of 6 or 7 conspicuous folds appear in the posterior region of the zooid when it contracts; 4) single horseshoe-shaped macronucleus oriented transversely; 5) single contractile vacuole located in peristomial region on dorsal wall of infundibulum; 6) myoneme system comprises 20-24 longitudinal fibers, peristomial disk fibers as a wreath-like net and peristomial ring fibers; 7) narrowly spaced transverse striations on the surface of the body; 8) infundibular polykineties 1 and 2 are three-rowed, infundibular polykinety 3 is two-rowed; and 9) stomatogenesis is of the buccokinetal type; in the new oral apparatus, infundibular polykineties 2 and 3, the haplokinety, and the germinal kinety all originate from the germinal kinety of the parental oral apparatus whereas the polykinety and infundibular polykinety 1 originate from the parental haplokinety. An improved diagnosis of E. plicatilis is supplied. J. Morphol. 275:882-893, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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