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Ho T.-Y.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Kao W.-F.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Lee S.-M.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Lin P.-K.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Retina | Year: 2011

Background: Visual disturbances after high-altitude exposure were first reported in 1969. Manifestations may include retinal hemorrhage, papilledema, and vitreous hemorrhage. Methods: We observed a group of 6 experienced climbers who ascended Mt Aconcagua to an altitude of 6,962 m in February 2007. Visual acuity study, intraocular pressure study, visual field study, nerve fiber layer analysis, eye Doppler, laboratory studies, fundus photography, and intravenous fluorescein angiography were performed on the climbers before and after their exposures to high altitude. Results: In all six study subjects, retinal vascular engorgement and tortuosity were present in varying degrees in both eyes. One of the climbers had both retinal hemorrhage and pulmonary edema. Of the two subjects who had visual field defects, one had severe nerve fiber layer defects of both eyes. Furthermore, laboratory studies of this climber showed a high level of antiphospholipid antibody. Significant reduction of the left ocular blood flow was also noted on this subject's eye Doppler examination after the Mt Aconcagua expedition. Conclusion: Various high-altitude retinopathies were observed in the experienced climbers of this study. As high-altitude pursuits become more popular, attention should be paid to the increasing prevalence of high-altitude retinopathy. Copyright © by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.

Chiu H.-Y.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Sun K.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Chen S.-Y.,National Taiwan Ocean University | Wang H.-H.,Cheng Hsin Rehabilitation Medical Center | And 5 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2012

The amount of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) produced by a transitional cell carcinoma is directly correlated with high recurrence and poor prognosis in bladder cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of CCL2 on tumor progression remain unexplored. To investigate the role played by CCL2, we examined cell migration in various bladder cancer cell lines. We found that high-grade cancer cells expressing high levels of CCL2 showed more migration activity than low-grade bladder cancer cells expressing low levels of the chemokine. Although the activation of CCL2/CCR2 signals did not appreciably affect cell growth, it mediated cell migration and invasion via the activation of protein kinase C and phosphorylation of tyrosine in paxillin. Blocking CCL2 and CCR2 with small hairpin RNA (shCCL2) or a specific inhibitor reduced CCL2/CCR2-mediated cell migration. The antagonist of CCR2 promoted the survival of mice bearing MBT2 bladder cancer cells, and CCL2-depleted cells showed low tumorigenicity compared with shGFP cells. In addition to observing high-levels of CCL2 in high-grade human bladder cancer cells, we showed that the CCL2/CCR2 signaling pathway mediated migratory and invasive activity, whereas blocking the pathway decreased migration and invasion. In conclusion, high levels of CCL2 expressed in bladder cancer mediates tumor invasion and is involved with advanced tumorigenesis. Our findings suggest that this CCL2/CCR2 pathway is a potential candidate for the attenuation of bladder cancer metastases. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Hung C.-H.,National Cheng Kung University | Liu K.-S.,Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science | Shao D.-Z.,Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology | Cheng K.-I.,Kaohsiung Medical University | And 2 more authors.
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2010

Background: Although proxymetacaine and oxybuprocaine produce topical ocular and spinal anesthesia, they have never been tested as cutaneous anesthetics. We compared cutaneous analgesia of proxymetacaine and oxybuprocaine with bupivacaine and tested their central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity. Methods: After blockade of cutaneous trunci muscle reflex with subcutaneous injections, we evaluated the local anesthetic effect of proxymetacaine and oxybuprocaine on cutaneous analgesia in rats. After IV infusions of equipotent doses of oxybuprocaine, proxymetacaine, and bupivacaine, we observed the onset time of seizure, apnea, and impending death and monitored mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. Results: Proxymetacaine and oxybuprocaine acted like bupivacaine and produced dose-related cutaneous analgesia. On a 50% effective dose basis, the ranks of potencies were proxymetacaine > oxybuprocaine > bupivacaine (P < 0.01). Under equipotent doses, the infusion times of proxymetacaine or oxybuprocaine required to cause seizure, apnea, and impending death were longer than that of bupivacaine (P < 0.05). The decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate was slower with oxybuprocaine and proxymetacaine compared with bupivacaine (P < 0.05 for the differences) at equipotent doses. Conclusions: Oxybuprocaine and proxymetacaine were more potent at producing cutaneous anesthesia but were less potent than bupivacaine at producing central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity. Copyright © 2009 International Anesthesia Research Society.

Tung F.-L.,Cheng Hsin Rehabilitation Medical Center | Yang Y.-R.,National Yang Ming University | Lee C.-C.,Taipei Veterans General Hospital | Wang R.-Y.,National Yang Ming University
Clinical Rehabilitation | Year: 2010

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of sit-to-stand training in individuals with stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Rehabilitation medical centre. Participants: Thirty-two subjects with stroke were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups (n = 16 for each group). Interventions: Subjects in both groups received 30 minutes of general physical therapy three times a week for four weeks. Subjects in the experimental group received additional sit-to-stand training for 15 minutes each time. The total amount of therapy received was 45 minutes in the experimental group and 30 minutes in the control group each time. Main outcome measures: The weight-bearing distribution during quiet standing, the directional control and maximal excursion during limits of stability test, the scores of Berg Balance Scale and the extensor muscle strength of lower extremity were assessed before and after completing the 12 treatment sessions. Results: Our data showed significant improvements in directional control anteriorly in the experimental group (from 47.4 (36.6)% to 62.6 (26.1)%) compared with the control group (from 68.7 (16.7)% to 62.8 (29.7)%) (P = 0.028). A significant improvement in affected hip extensor strength was noted in the experimental group (from 19.3 (9.8)% to 22.6 (8.4)%) compared with the control group (from 24.4 (9.0)% to 22.8 (7.2)%) (P = 0.006). Significant improvements were noted only in the experimental group after treatment, including bilateral extensors, except the affected plantar flexors, the weight distribution in standing, the maximal excursion (P anterior = 0.049; Paffected = 0.023) and the directional control (Paffected = 0.013; Pnon-affected = 0.025). Conclusions: Additional sit-to-stand training is encouraged due to effects on dynamic balance and extensor muscles strength in subjects with stroke. © The Author(s), 2010.

Lu C.-C.,National Chung Hsing University | Yang J.-S.,China Medical University at Taichung | Huang A.-C.,St. Marys College | Hsia T.-C.,China Medical University at Taichung | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2010

Anthraquinone compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in different cancer cell types. Effects of chrysophanol, an anthraquinone compound, on cancer cell death have not been well studied. The goal of this study was to examine if chrysophanol had cytotoxic effects and if such effects involved apoptosis or necrosis in J5 human liver cancer cells. Chryso-phanol induced necrosis in J5 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Non-apoptotic cell death was induced by chrysophanol in J5 cells and was characterized by caspase independence, delayed externalization of phosphatidylserine and plasma membrane disruption. Blockage of apoptotic induction by a general caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) failed to protect cells against chrysophanol-induced cell death. The levels of reactive oxygen species production and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (AC m) were also determined to assess the effects of chrysophanol. However, reductions in adenosine triphosphate levels and increases in lactate dehydrogenase activity indicated that chrysophanol stimulated necrotic cell death. In summary, human liver cancer cells treated with chrysophanol exhibited a cellular pattern associated with necrosis and not apoptosis. ©2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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