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Lai C.-H.,Cheng Hsin General Hospital | Lai C.-H.,National Yang Ming University
Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences | Year: 2014

The author retrieved 10 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies about visual tasks for emotional faces in subjects with depression. The activation foci were then summarized and entered into a coordinate-based meta-analysis. The depression group showed significantly increased activations in the left striatum and left parahippocampal gyrus; the control group showed increased activations in the left medial frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right thalamus, left anterior cingulate, and superior frontal gyrus. The study suggests that depression patients have limbic activations, and controls have fronto-thalamic activations with visual processing of emotional faces. © 2014 by the American Psychiatric Association. Source


Lai C.-H.,Cheng Hsin General Hospital | Wu Y.-T.,National Yang Ming University
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Objective: Because of limited knowledge about white matter (WM) tract in panic disorder, we designed this study to investigate alterations of WM tracts in first-episode medication-naïve panic disorder patients. Methods: Thirty patients and 21 normal controls were enrolled into our study. They all received acquisitions of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 30 directions. DTI images of patients and controls were preprocessed and analyzed to estimate differences of WM microintegrity between patients and controls. We obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) values from the DTI images. FA outputs of patients and controls were compared by non-parametric permutation-based method with global brain volume, age, gender and duration of illness as covariates. Correlations between severity of panic symptoms and FA values were also estimated. Results: First-episode, medication-naïve and late-onset panic disorder patients had altered integrity in WM tracts of right inferior fronto-occipital fasculi, left body of corpus callosum and left superior longitudinal fasciculus when compared to controls (corrected p<0.05). Negative correlations between PD symptoms and FA values were observed in corpus callosum of patient group (corrected p<0.05). Conclusions: WM tract alterations might represent structural pathophysiology in WM of first-episode, medication-naïve and late-onset panic disorder patients. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


This study was designed to explore regional homogeneity (ReHo), an indicator of the synchronization of brain function, in first-episode, medication-naïve and late-onset patients with panic disorder (PD). Participants comprised 30 patients and 21 healthy controls who underwent with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning and ReHo functional MRI analysis. All participants were studied with clinical rating scales to assess the severity of PD symptoms. ReHo values were obtained using the REST toolbox (resting-state functional MRI data analysis toolbox). Differences in demographic data and ReHo values between the two groups were evaluated with the independent two-sample t-test function of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and REST. There were significant differences in clinical ratings between the two groups. No demographic differences were noted. We found decreased ReHo in the left lingual gyrus and increased ReHo in the right cuneus cortex of patients compared with controls. ReHo values of patients were negatively correlated with PD ratings in the right cuneus. ReHo differences found in the left lingual gyrus and the right cuneus might suggest sensory and inhibitory dysfunction in first-episode, medication-naïve, late-onset patients with PD. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Lai C.-H.,Cheng Hsin General Hospital | Lai C.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Wu Y.-T.,National Yang Ming University
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

The issue of inter-hemispheric connectivity is an emerging new area in understanding the pathophysiology of depression. This study was designed to analyse the pattern of inter-hemispheric connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RFMRI) was acquired in all enrolled patients and controls. We used a method of voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) to estimate the significant differences in inter-hemispheric connectivity between 44 patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD and 27 normal controls. The patients and controls were matched for age and gender. The patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD showed lower VMHC than normal controls in bilateral medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate and cerebellar posterior lobe. The strength of inter-hemispheric connectivity VMHC value was negatively correlated with clinical severity of MDD. From the results, we suggested that decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity in the anterior sub-network of the default mode network and the cerebellar posterior lobe might represent an emerging finding in the pathophysiology for MDD. © CINP 2014. Source


Lai C.-H.,Cheng Hsin General Hospital | Lai C.-H.,National Yang Ming University | Wu Y.-T.,National Yang Ming University
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2014

Objective This study is designed to investigate the gray matter volume (GMV) deficits in patients with first-episode medication-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods We enrolled 38 patients with first-episode medication-naïve MDD and 27 controls in this project. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare GMV differences between two groups. Besides, the relationship between GMV of patients and the severity of clinical symptoms was estimated to confirm the role of GMV deficits in clinical symptoms. The correlation between total GMV and illness duration was also performed to elucidate the impacts of untreated duration on the GMV. Results We found that first-episode medication-naïve MDD patients had significant GMV deficits in bilateral superior frontal gyri, left middle frontal gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus and left insula. The GMV of patient group was negatively correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms and the illness duration. Conclusion A pattern of GMV deficits in fronto-insula might represent the biomarker for first-episode medication-naïve MDD. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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