News Article | November 10, 2016
— The metal recycling market is driven by strict laws pertaining to waste management. Increasing awareness of the efficient use of natural resources is to drive the metal recycling market. Use of recycled metal in the building & construction sector projected to increase during the forecast period. The building & construction segment is projected to be the fastest-growing end-use sector in the next five years. Due to growth of infrastructure development and construction related activities, the demand for metal recycling is projected to grow in this sector. Complete report on metal recycling market spread across 214 pages, profiling 10 companies and supported with 180 tables and 48 figures is now available at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/446343-metal-recycling-market-by-metal-type-ferrous-non-ferrous-scrap-type-old-scrap-new-scrap-end-use-sector-construction-automotive-equipment-manufacturing-shipbuilding-others-equipment-shredders-granulating-machines-others-forecast-to-2020.html . Primary interviews were conducted with a number of industry experts in order to collect data related to different aspects of the metal recycling market. Estimates reached after analyzing secondary sources were validated through these interviews. Primary sources include professionals such as metal recyclers, scrap metal dealers, and distributors. The following figure provides a breakdown of the type of companies to which the primary sources belong, the number of primaries by designation, and their regional break-up. In the process of determining and verifying the market size for several segments and sub-segments gathered through secondary research, extensive primary interviews were conducted with key people. In Tier 1 (41%), Tier 2 (42%), and Tier 3 (17%) companies. The interviews were conducted with various key people such as C-level (48%), manager level (32%), and other executives (20%) operating in the metal recycling market. The primary interviews were conducted worldwide covering regions such as North America (38%), Europe (35%), APAC (18%), and RoW (9%). The various key metal recycling companies profiled in the report are ArcelorMittal (Luxembourg), Nucor Corporation (U.S.), Commercial Metals Company (U.S.), Sims Metal Management Limited (U.S.), Aurubis AG (Germany) Linde Ag (Germany), European Metal Recycling Limited (U.K.), Dowa Holdings Co., Ltd. (Japan), Tata Steel Limited (India), Baosteel Group Corporation (China), Redmond’s SE & Co. KG (Germany). This is a premium research report priced at US $4650 for a single user PDF, a discount on Metal Recycling Market by Metal Type (Ferrous, Non-Ferrous), Scrap Type (Old Scrap, New Scrap), End-Use Sector (Construction, Automotive, Equipment Manufacturing, Shipbuilding, Others), Equipment (Shredders, Granulating Machines, Others) - Forecast to 2020 can be requested at http://www.reportsnreports.com/contacts/discount.aspx?name=446343 . This report segments the metal recycling market comprehensively and provides the closest approximations of the revenue numbers for the overall market and the sub segments across the different verticals and regions. The report also helps stakeholders to understand the market and provides them information on key market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities. This report will help stakeholders to better understand their competitors and gain more insights about their position in the business. The competitive landscape section includes competitor ecosystem, new product developments, agreements, partnerships and joint ventures, and acquisitions. On a related note, another research titled Metal Cleaning Chemicals Market Global Trends & Forecasts to 2020 says, the metal cleaning chemicals market is projected to register a CAGR of 3.9%, in terms of volume, between 2015 and 2020. Asia-Pacific is leading the metal cleaning chemicals market and projected to continue dominating the market till 2020. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (U.S.), Eastman Chemical Company (U.S.), Emerson Industrial Automation (U.S.), Houghton International Inc.(U.S.), Oxiteno (Brazil), Quaker Chemical Corporation (U.S.), Rochestor Midland Corporation (U.S.), Stepan Company (U.S.), the Chemours Company (U.S.), and the Dow Chemical Co. (U.S.) are companies mentioned in this 132 pages research available at http://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/443276-metal-cleaning-chemicals-market-by-type-aqueous-solvent-by-metal-type-steel-aluminum-copper-alloys-others-by-region-global-trends-forecasts-to-2020.html . ReportsnReports.com is an online market research reports library of 500,000+ in-depth studies of over 5000 micro markets. Not limited to any one industry, ReportsnReports.com offers research studies on agriculture, energy and power, chemicals, environment, medical devices, healthcare, food and beverages, water, advanced materials and much more. For more information, please visit http://www.reportsnreports.com
News Article | November 24, 2016
Titanium Dioxide Market for Paints & Coatings, Plastic, Paper and Other Applications: Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Segment, Trends and Forecast, 2014 – 2020 The report covers forecast and analysis for the titanium dioxide market on a global and regional level. The study provides historic data of 2014 along with a forecast from 2015 to 2020 based on both volumes (million tons) and revenue (USD million). The study includes drivers and restraints for the titanium dioxide market along with the impact they have on the demand over the forecast period. Additionally, the report includes the study of opportunities available in the titanium dioxide market on a global level. In order to give the users of this report a comprehensive view on the titanium dioxide market, we have included a detailed value chain analysis. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s Five Forces model for the titanium dioxide market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein application segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness. The study provides a decisive view on the titanium dioxide market by segmenting the market based on applications. All the application segments have been analyzed based on present and future trends and the market is estimated from 2014 to 2020. Key application market covered under this study includes paints & coatings, plastic, paper and other. The regional segmentation includes the current and forecast demand for North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa with its further bifurcation into major countries including U.S. Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India and Brazil. This segmentation includes demand for titanium dioxide based on individual applications in all the regions and countries. Some of the key players in the global titanium dioxide market include Chemours Company, CRISTAL, Kronos Worldwide INC., DuPont, Huntsman, Evonik, Argex Titanium Inc, Pangang Group Vanadium Titanium & Resources Co., Ltd., Yunnan Dahutong Industry & Trading Co., Ltd and Tronox limited. This report segments the global titanium dioxide market as follows:
Warheit D.B.,Chemours Company |
Donner E.M.,DuPont Company
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2015
The basic tenets for assessing health risks posed by nanoparticles (NP) requires documentation of hazards and the corresponding exposures that may occur. Accordingly, this review describes the range and types of potential human exposures that may result from interactions with titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles or NP - either in the occupational/workplace environment, or in consumer products, including food materials and cosmetics. Each of those applications has a predominant route of exposure. Very little is known about the human impact potential from environmental exposures to NP - thus this particular issue will not be discussed further. In the workplace or occupational setting inhalation exposure predominates. Experimental toxicity studies demonstrate low hazards in particle-exposed rats. Only at chronic overload exposures do rats develop forms of lung pathology. These findings are not supported by multiple epidemiology studies in heavily-exposed TiO2 workers which demonstrate a lack of correlation between chronic particle exposures and adverse health outcomes including lung cancer and noncancerous chronic respiratory effects. Cosmetics and sunscreens represent the major application of dermal exposures to TiO2 particles. Experimental dermal studies indicate a lack of penetration of particles beyond the epidermis with no consequent health risks. Oral exposures to ingested TiO2 particles in food occur via passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), with studies indicating negligible uptake of particles into the bloodstream of humans or rats with subsequent excretion through the feces. In addition, standardized guideline-mandated subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats demonstrate very low toxicity effects with NOAELs of >1000 mg/kg bw/day. Additional issues which are summarized in detail in this review are: 1) Methodologies for implementing the Nano Risk Framework - a process for ensuring the responsible development of products containing nanoscale materials; and 2) Safe-handling of nanomaterials in the laboratory. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Koban M.E.,Chemours Company
International Journal of Automotive Engineering | Year: 2016
HFO-1234yf is a low GWP refrigerant developed for automotive air-conditioning (A/C) systems to replace HFC-134a. Industry-wide risk assessments found that HFO-1234yf can be safely used in mobile A/C applications with results previously presented. Various global automotive OEMs have transitioned to HFO-1234yf at selected manufacturing sites in different regions. This paper documents critical steps for successful transition, including installation, commissioning and startup of storage and vehicle charging facilities. Observations will also be shared concerning potential pit-falls that have been encountered during new refrigerant implementation at these sites. © 2016 Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc.
Erkenbrecher C.W.,Chemours Company |
Nurnberg S.,Chemours Company |
Breyla A.D.,Chemours Company
SPE Production and Operations | Year: 2015
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), a relative new addition to the oil and gas fracturing industry (especially for production-water treatment for reuse), has superior microbial efficacy compared with currently used nonoxidizing biocides at their lowest and mid-range US Environmental Protection Agency approved concentrations. ClO2 is the only antimicrobial treatment to exhibit complete kill of any of the bacterial populations [except tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) at 208 ppm (commodity basis) in 100% Marcellus shale production water], and demonstrated greater than 5.16 log10 reduction even at the lowest ClO2 residual tested (i.e., 1.19 ppm residual; 9 ppm dose). As a result, ClO2 should be considered a potentially viable option when selecting a biocide for treating fracturing production waters for reuse in the Marcellus shale play. © 2015 Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Warheit D.B.,Chemours Company |
Brown S.C.,Chemours Company |
Donner E.M.,DuPont Company
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2015
Data generated using standardized testing protocols for toxicity studies generally provide reproducible and reliable results for establishing safe levels and formulating risk assessments. The findings of three OECD guideline-type oral toxicity studies of different duration in rats are summarized in this publication; each study evaluated different titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of varying sizes and surface coatings. Moreover, each study finding demonstrated an absence of any TiO2 -related hazards. To briefly summarize the findings: 1) In a subchronic 90-day study (OECD TG 408), groups of young adult male and female rats were dosed with rutile-type, surface-coated pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 145 nm - 21% nanoparticles by particle number criteria) by oral gavage for 90 days. The no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for both male and female rats in this study was 1000 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested. The NOAEL was determined based on a lack of TiO2 particle-related adverse effects on any in-life, clinical pathology, or anatomic/microscopic pathology parameters; 2) In a 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study (OECD TG 407), groups of young adult male rats were administered daily doses of two rutile-type, uncoated, pigment-grade TiO2 test particles (d50 = 173 nm by number) by daily oral gavage at a dose of 24,000 mg/kg bw/day. There were no adverse effects measured during or following the end of the exposure period; and the NOAEL was determined to be 24,000 mg/kg bw/day; 3) In an acute oral toxicity study (OECD TG 425), female rats were administered a single oral exposure of surface-treated rutile/anatase nanoscale TiO2 particles (d50 = 73 nm by number) with doses up to 5000 mg/kg and evaluated over a 14-day post-exposure period. Under the conditions of this study, the oral LD50 for the test substance was >5000 mg/kg bw. In summary, the results from these three toxicity studies - each with different TiO2 particulate-types, demonstrated an absence of adverse toxicological effects. Apart from reporting the findings of these three studies, this publication also focuses on additional critical issues associated with particle and nanotoxicology studies. First, describing the detailed methodology requirements and rigor upon which the standardized OECD 408 guideline subchronic oral toxicity studies are conducted. Moreover, an attempt is made to reconcile the complex issue of particle size distribution as it relates to measurements of nanoscale and pigment-grade TiO2 particles. Clearly this has been a confusing issue and often misrepresented in the media and the scientific literature. It is clear that the particle-size distribution for pigment-grade TiO2, contains a small ("tail") component of nanoscale particles (i.e., 21% by particle number and <1% by weight in the test material used in the 90-day study). However, this robust particle characterization finding should not be confused with mislabeling the test materials as exclusively in the nanoscale range. Moreover, based upon the findings presented herein, there appears to be no significant oral toxicity impact contributed by the nanoscale component of the TiO2 Test Material sample in the 90-day study. Finally, it seems reasonable to conclude that the study findings should be considered for read-across purposes to food-grade TiO2 particles (e.g., E171), as the physicochemical characteristics are quite similar. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Burkhardt S.E.,DuPont Company |
Petrov V.A.,Chemours Co. |
Manzo S.M.,DuPont Company
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry | Year: 2016
A computational study was performed comparing two possible pathways for the fluoride ion catalyzed reaction of 1 with 2, both proceeding through a zwitterion intermediate. The kinetic pathway corresponded to the initially observed product, 4, with a low activation charge-controlled process resulting in a zwitterion intermediate. On the other hand, a thermodynamic pathway was also apparent, with a higher barrier towards zwitterion formation, corresponding to product 5. A similar examination of the reaction pathway of vinyl ether, 6, with 2, demonstrated that the monomethoxy substitution was unable to stabilize the zwitterion intermediate in the proposed kinetic pathway, giving rise to only the thermodynamic pathway and the observed product, 7. The calculated reaction pathways are used to support the hypothesized reaction mechanims leading to the unexpected product, 4, while similar experimental studies of vinyl ethers are observed to only yield products analogous to 5. © 2016
Warheit D.B.,Chemours Company |
Boatman R.,Boatman Toxicology Consulting LLC |
Brown S.C.,Chemours Company
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015
Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m2/g and 50-82 m2/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal alterations. There was no evidence of maternal or developmental toxicity at any dose level tested in any of the six studies. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for titanium dioxide was 1000 mg/kg/day, the highest administered dose, in both the Sprague-Dawley (Crl:CD(SD) and Wistar rat strains. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
How meaningful are risk determinations in the absence of a complete dataset? Making the case for publishing standardized test guideline and 'no effect' studies for evaluating the safety of nanoparticulates versus spurious 'high effect' results from single investigative studies
Warheit D.B.,Chemours Company |
Donner E.M.,DuPont Company
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials | Year: 2015
A recent review article critically assessed the effectiveness of published research articles in nanotoxicology to meaningfully address health and safety issues for workers and consumers. The main conclusions were that, based on a number of flaws in study designs, the potential risk from exposures to nanomaterials is highly exaggerated, and that no 'nano-specific' adverse effects, different from exposures to bulk particles, have been convincingly demonstrated. In this brief editorial we focus on a related tangential issue which potentially compromises the integrity of basic risk science. We note that some single investigation studies report specious toxicity findings, which make the conclusions more alarming and attractive and publication worthy. In contrast, the standardized, carefully conducted, 'guideline study results' are often ignored because they can frequently report no adverse effects; and as a consequence are not considered as novel findings for publication purposes, and therefore they are never considered as newsworthy in the popular press. Yet it is the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) type test guideline studies that are the most reliable for conducting risk assessments. To contrast these styles and approaches, we present the results of a single study which reports high toxicological effects in rats following low-dose, short-term oral exposures to nanoscale titanium dioxide particles concomitant with selective investigative analyses. Alternatively, the findings of OECD test guideline 408, standardized guideline oral toxicity studies conducted for 90 days at much higher doses (1000 mg kg-1) in male and female rats demonstrated no adverse effects following a very thorough and complete clinical chemical, as well as histopathological evaluation of all of the relevant organs in the body. This discrepancy in study findings is not reconciled by the fact that several biokinetic studies in rats and humans demonstrate little or no uptake of nanoscale or pigment-grade TiO2 particles following oral exposures. We conclude that to develop a competent risk assessment profile, results derived from standardized, guideline-type studies, and even 'no effect' study findings provide critically useful input for assessing safe levels of exposure; and should, in principle, be readily acceptable for publication in peer-reviewed toxicology journals. This is a necessary prerequisite for developing a complete dataset for risk assessment determinations. © 2015 National Institute for Materials Science.
News Article | October 7, 2016
"Residents of the West Calumet Housing Complex in East Chicago want the operators of two former lead factories to pay for their relocation. A class action lawsuit filed Thursday by LeRithea Rolan and Lamottca Brooks, on behalf of the residents of the housing complex, charged that Atlantic Richfield Company, DuPont and the Chemours Company should be responsible for the costs incurred by residents as they've been forced from their homes because of the lead and arsenic the now-demolished factories left in the ground. "… News of the lead and arsenic contamination in East Chicago has thrown the neighborhood into disarray, while ARCO and DuPont are long gone from the area," said attorney Thomas Zimmerman, who is representing the plaintiffs, in a statement. "The polluters must take responsibility and pay for the damages they have caused.""