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Alkins R.,Sunnybrook Research Institute | Alkins R.,University of Toronto | Burgess A.,Sunnybrook Research Institute | Ganguly M.,Sunnybrook Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2013

Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes involved in innate immunity. NK-92, a human NK cell line, may be targeted to tumor-associated antigens in solid malignancies where it exhibits antitumor efficacy, but its clinical utility for treating brain tumors is limited by an inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We investigated the potential for focused ultrasound (FUS) to deliver targeted NK-92 cells to the brain using a model of metastatic breast cancer. HER2-expressing human breast tumor cells were implanted into the brain of nude rats. The NK-92-scFv(FRP5)-zeta cell line expressing a chimeric HER2 antigen receptor was transfected with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles before intravenous injection, before and following BBB disruption using focused ultrasound (551.5 kHz focused transducer, 0.33 MPa average peak rarefaction pressure) in the presence of a microbubble contrast agent. Baseline and posttreatment 1.5T and 7T MR imaging was done, and histology used to identify NK-92 cells post-mortem. Contrast-enhanced MRI showed reproducible and consistent BBB disruption. 7T MR images obtained at 16 hours posttreatment revealed a significant reduction in signal indicating the presence of iron-loaded NK-92 cells at the tumor site. The average ratio of NK-92 to tumor cells was 1:100 when NK cells were present in the vasculature at the time of sonication, versus 2:1,000 and 1:1,000 when delivered after sonication and without BBB disruption, respectively. Our results offer a preclinical proof-of-concept that FUS can improve the targeting of immune cell therapy of brain metastases. © 2012 AACR.


Patent
Chemotherapeutisches Forschungsinstitut Georg Speyer Haus | Date: 2015-10-30

The present invention relates to multi-functional proteins which comprise (i) a signal peptide, (ii) a target specific recognition domain, (iii) a linker region, connecting domain (ii) and domain (iv) which comprises a specific modified hinge region of the human CD8 alpha-chain, and (iv) an effector domain. The present invention furthermore relates to nucleic acids encoding the proteins, expression constructs for expressing the protein in a host cell and host cells. The proteins of the invention are chimeric antigen receptors with an optimized linker or hinge region that are suitable for generating target-specific effector cells, for use as a medicament, in particular in the treatment of cancer and in adoptive, target-cell specific immunotherapy.


Patent
Chemotherapeutisches Forschungsinstitut Georg Speyer Haus | Date: 2011-09-06

The present invention relates to multi-functional proteins which comprise (i) a signal peptide, (ii) a target specific recognition domain, (iii) a linker region, connecting domain (ii) and domain (iv) which comprises a specific modified hinge region of the human CD8 alpha-chain, and (iv) an effector domain. The present invention furthermore relates to nucleic acids encoding the proteins, expression constructs for expressing the protein in a host cell and host cells. The proteins of the invention are chimeric antigen receptors with an optimized linker or hinge region that are suitable for generating target-specific effector cells, for use as a medicament, in particular in the treatment of cancer and in adoptive, target-cell specific immunotherapy.


Patent
Chemotherapeutisches Forschungsinstitut Georg Speyer Haus | Date: 2011-09-06

The present invention relates to the use of interleukin-15 (IL-15) as selectable marker for gene transfer, preferably of at least one gene of therapeutic interest, into a mammalian cell or cell line, in particular a human cell or cell line. The present invention furthermore relates to transgenic mammalian cells or cell lines expressing IL-15 as selectable marker and co-expressing at least one protein of interest encoded by at least one gene of interest, which is preferably a protein of therapeutic interest. The present invention is in particular suitable for chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) as the gene or protein of interest and their expression in lymphocytes. The transgenic mammalian cells and cell lines are furthermore suitable for use as a medicament, in particular in the treatment of cancer and in immunotherapy, such as adoptive, target-cell specific immunotherapy.


Zhou Q.,Paul Ehrlich Institute | Schneider I.C.,Paul Ehrlich Institute | Edes I.,Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine | Honegger A.,University of Zurich | And 7 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2012

Transfer of tumor-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) genes into patient T cells is a promising strategy in cancer immunotherapy. We describe here a novel vector (CD8-LV) derived from lentivirus, which delivers genes exclusively and specifically to CD8+ cells. CD8-LV mediated stable in vitro and in vivo reporter gene transfer as well as efficient transfer of genes encoding TCRs recognizing the melanoma antigen tyrosinase. Strikingly, T cells genetically modified with CD8-LV killed melanoma cells reproducibly more efficiently than CD8+ cells transduced with a conventional lentiviral vector. Neither TCR expression levels, nor the rate of activation-induced death of transduced cells differed between both vector types. Instead, CD8-LV transduced cells showed increased granzyme B and perforin levels as well as an up-regulation of CD8 surface expression in a small subpopulation of cells. Thus, a possible mechanism for CD8-LV enhanced tumor cell killing may be based on activation of the effector functions of CD8+ T cells by the vector particle displaying OKT8-derived CD8-scFv and an increase of the surface density of CD8, which functions as coreceptor for tumor-cell recognition. CD8-LV represents a powerful novel vector for TCR gene therapy and other applications in immunotherapy and basic research requiring CD8+ cell-specific gene delivery. © 2012 by The American Society of Hematology.

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