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Melbourne, Australia

Donald K.,Red Cross | Hall S.,Red Cross | Seaton C.,Chemistry Laboratory | Tanyanyiwa D.,University of Witwatersrand
South African Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Background. Aspirin should not be used in children except for specific therapeutic reasons. We report on a severely ill infant who had ingested aspirin contained in a traditional medicine and review 21 other patients with pre-admission non-therapeutic salicylate exposure. Objectives and methods. We reviewed laboratory, clinical and poisons unit records to determine how many children were admitted to our hospital over an 18-month period with evidence of salicylate ingestion not prescribed for therapeutic reasons. We determined the source of the salicylate, elapsed time between ingestion and laboratory assay, morbidity and mortality and final diagnosis. Results. Twenty-one children meeting our criteria, including 9 under 6 months of age, were admitted during this period. The most prevalent source of salicylate was over-the-counter (OTC) aspirin, but some had reportedly only been given traditional medicines. Nineteen were seriously ill, 4 died and 3 had severe brain injury. Two, initially diagnosed with Reye's syndrome, probably had inherited metabolic disorders. Only 2 patients had salicylate levels that at the time of measurement are normally considered toxic; however, the literature suggests that lower levels may exacerbate illness severity in young children. Conclusions. We found inappropriate use of OTC aspirin in children that requires explanation. There may be policy implications for the content and presentation of patient information; the incorporation of pharmaceuticals in traditional medicines merits further study. Salicylate toxicity should be considered in children with unexplained metabolic acidosis out of keeping with the severity of their acute illness.

Li C.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Yang B.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Fenstemacher R.,Chemistry Laboratory | Turkson J.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Cao S.,University of Hawaii at Manoa
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2015

An endophytic fungus Paraphaeosphaeria neglecta FT462 from the Hawaiian plant Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm produced an unusual δ-lactone-isochromanone with a methylene bridge (1). The structure of 1 was determined by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Nabi S.A.,Analytical Research Laboratory | Naushad Mu.,Chemistry Laboratory
Chemical Engineering Journal | Year: 2010

A new inorganic cation exchange material Ti(IV) iodovanadate has been synthesized under a variety of conditions. The experimental parameters such as mixing volume ratio, order of mixing and pH established for the synthesis of the material. The most stable sample has been prepared by adding aqueous mixture of 0.1 M potassium iodate and 0.1 M sodium vanadate into 0.1 M solution (CCl4 medium) of titanium chloride at pH 1. The material is characterized using various analytical techniques like XRD, FTIR, TGA-DTA and SEM. A tentative structural formula has been proposed on the basis of chemical composition, pH titration, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis. The ion exchange capacity and distribution coefficients of various metal ions have been determined to understand the cation exchange behavior of the material. On the basis of distribution studies, the material was found to be selective for Pb2+ ion. Its selectivity has been examined by achieving some important and analytically difficult binary separations, viz. Cr3+-Pb2+, Fe3+-Pb2+, Zn2+-Pb2+, Cd2+-Pb2+, etc. The material has bee also used as an electron exchange material. The oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) has been achieved by batch-equilibrium technique successfully. The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by the material has also been studied. The practical utility of Ti(IV) iodovanadate has been demonstrated by separating metal ions quantitatively from a synthetic mixture using the packed column of Ti(IV) iodovanadate. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Fadda A.A.,Mansoura University | Rabie R.,Chemistry Laboratory
Research on Chemical Intermediates | Year: 2015

A systematic and comprehensive survey of the preparation methods of N-cyanoacetamides is discussed in this review. Also, the chemical reactivity and reactions of this class to obtain biologically active novel heterocyclic moieties is described. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

News Article | February 29, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

In an effort to learn more about Mars, NASA scientists explore Atacama Desert in Chile, known as the "driest place on Earth." Atacama offers a Mars-like environment that could offer researchers opportunities for conducting field tests of new life-detecting instruments that may be brought into future missions to the Red Planet. Because of its harsh environment characterized by intense ultraviolet radiation and very little water, life in Atacama exists as microbial colonies that thrive inside rocks or undergrounds. While the region is considerably warmer compared with Mars, its soil chemistry and extreme dryness are remarkably similar to that of the Red Planet, which makes the region an excellent Mars-like laboratory where researchers can study the limits of their life-detection and test drilling technologies. With Mars having cold and dry condition, there is high possibility that life in the planet may be found below its surface where the unwanted effects of radiation are reduced. Evidence for alien life in the extraterrestrial world may come in the form of organic molecules called biomarkers. "Putting life-detection instruments in a difficult, Mars-analog environment will help us figure out the best ways of looking for past or current life on Mars, if it existed," said NASA's Brian Glass. "Having both subsurface reach and surface mobility should greatly increase the number of biomarker and life-target sites we can sample in the Atacama." Brian Glass and colleagues spent a month running experiments in the arid region testing a Mars-prototype drill, Signs of Life Detector (SOLID), which was developed by the Centro de Astrobiologia (CAB) of Spain, and a prototype of Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL), which accompanied the Phoenix lander to Mars in 2007. Researchers also collected samples of extreme microorganisms that live in the Atacama's salt habitats for laboratory investigations. These habitats could serve as host for life in the extremely dry region known to be devoid of animals, plants and most types of microorganisms. NASA Ames researcher Mary Beth Wilhelm said that they are excited about the distinctive and resilient microorganisms and are optimistic that their studies will help improve the life-detection technology and strategies that will be adopted for the Red Planet.

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