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Milardi D.,IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo | Bramanti P.,IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo | Finocchio G.,Chemistry and Industrial Engineering | Santoro G.,IRCCS Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo | And 5 more authors.
Cerebral Cortex | Year: 2015

The claustrum is a thin layer of gray matter that is at the center of an active scientific debate. Recently, Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD) tractography has proved to be an extraordinary tool allowing to track white matter fibers from cortex to cortical and subcortical targets with subvoxel resolution. The aim of this study was to evaluate claustral connectivity in the human brain. Ten normal brains were analyzed by using the High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging CSD-based technique. Tractography revealed 4 groups of white matter fibers connecting the claustrum with the brain cortex: Anterior, posterior, superior, and lateral. The anterior and posterior cortico-claustral tracts connected the claustrum to prefrontal cortex and visual areas. The superior tract linked the claustrum with sensory-motor areas, while the lateral pathway connected the claustrum to the auditory cortex. In addition, we demonstrated a claustral medial pathway connecting the claustrum with the basal ganglia, specifically with caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus. An interesting and exciting new finding was the demonstration of a bilateral connection between claustrum and contralateral cortical areas and a well-represented interclaustral communication with interconnection bundles interspersed within the bulk of the trunk of the corpus callosum. The physiological and pathophysiological relevance of these findings are discussed. © 2013 The Author.

Bonaccorsi L.,Chemistry and Industrial Engineering | Guglielmino E.,Chemistry and Industrial Engineering | Pino R.,Chemistry and Industrial Engineering | Servetto C.,IIS Service S.r.l. | Sili A.,Chemistry and Industrial Engineering
Engineering Failure Analysis | Year: 2014

Reformer furnaces tubes work under high temperature and pressure for a long time, which are very critical conditions for creep deformation and life of most common materials. Cast austenitic Fe-Cr-Ni alloys in the widely know HP grades are used for reformer tubes to allow a good service at temperatures that can be close to 1000. °C. This paper reports a study devoted to the damage analysis of reformer furnace tubes after more than 100,000. h of service. Tubes, made of a HP grade modified with Nb and Ti additions, were inspected in situ by a laser optic system to measure their internal diameter and evaluate creep deformation. With the aim of developing a criterion for deciding the substitution of components, samples of as cast material and samples, cut from the most deformed tubes put out of service, were considered to check changes of mechanical properties and metallurgical characteristics. Tensile and creep tests were carried out; moreover the metallographic observations included optical and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in order to measure locally the chemical composition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Bonaccorsi L.,Chemistry and Industrial Engineering | Calabrese L.,Chemistry and Industrial Engineering | Proverbio E.,Chemistry and Industrial Engineering | Frazzica A.,CNR Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Energy Chemistry | Year: 2013

Low temperature heat adsorption pumps represent the innovative cooling systems, where cold is generated through adsorption/desorption cycle of water by a suitable adsorbent with good adsorption and high thermal conductive properties. In this work, the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite SAPO-34 on thermal conductive graphitic supports, aiming at the development of highly performing adsorbent materials, is reported. The synthesis was carried out using as-received and oxidized commercial carbon papers, and graphite plate. Composites were characterized by XRD, SEM and also by a thermogravimetric method, using a Cahn microbalance. The water adsorbing capacity showed typical S-shape trend and the maximum water loading was around 25 wt%, a value close to water adsorption capability of pure SAPO-34. These results are very promising for their application in heat adsorption pumps. Copyright © 2013, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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