Wouldes T.A.,University of Auckland |
LaGasse L.L.,Warren Alpert Medical School and Women and Infants Hospital |
Newman E.,University of Tulsa |
Shah R.,Central Iowa Health Des Moines |
And 6 more authors.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2013
Background: Methamphetamine (MA) abuse is a worldwide problem. Little is known about the co-morbidity of substance use disorders (SUD) and other psychiatric disorders of mothers who use MA prenatally. The Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study is a prospective, investigation of prenatal MA use and child outcome in the United States (US) and New Zealand (NZ). This study examined prenatal MA use and the co-morbidity of SUD and psychiatric disorders at 1-month postpartum. Method: Mothers who used MA (US = 127, NZ = 97) were compared to a matched comparison group (US = 193, NZ = 110). The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 was used to measure the probability of a SUD. The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was used to measure the likelihood of a positive diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. Results: In the US and NZ, MA groups had lower SES, increased single parenting, delayed prenatal care, and increased polydrug use. In the US only, MA mothers had lower income than the comparison group. MA users were 10 times more likely to have a SUD and twice as likely to meet BSI criteria for a diagnosable psychiatric disorder. In NZ, but not the US, MA users were five times more likely to have co-morbidity of both. This disparity may be due to higher quantities of prenatal alcohol use associated with increased psychiatric symptoms. Conclusion: These findings suggest that addressing both substance abuse and psychiatric disorders in mothers who use MA may be required to effectively treat maternal MA use. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Marrone G.F.,Nicotine Psychopharmacology Section |
Shakleya D.M.,Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section |
Scheidweiler K.B.,Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section |
Singleton E.G.,U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse |
And 3 more authors.
Addiction | Year: 2011
Aims Many cities have banned indoor smoking in public places. Thus, an updated recommendation for a breath carbon monoxide (CO) cut-off is needed that optimally determines smoking status. We evaluated and compared the performance of breath CO and semiquantitative cotinine immunoassay test strips (urine and saliva NicAlert®) alone and in combination. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Urban drug addiction research and treatment facility. Participants Ninety non-treatment-seeking smokers and 82 non-smokers. Measurements Participants completed smoking histories and provided breath CO, urine and saliva specimens. Urine and saliva specimens were assayed for cotinine by NicAlert® and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Findings An optimal breath CO cut-off was established using self-report and LCMSMS analysis of cotinine, an objective indicator, as reference measures. Performance of smoking indicators and combinations were compared to the reference measures. Breath CO ≥5 parts per million (p.p.m.) optimally discriminated smokers from non-smokers. Saliva NicAlert® performance was less effective than the other indicators. Conclusions In surveys of smokers and non-smokers in areas with strong smoke-free laws, the breath carbon monoxide cut-off that discriminates most effectively appears to be ≥5p.p.m. rather than the ≥10p.p.m. cut-off often used. These findings may not generalize to clinical trials, regions with different carbon monoxide pollution levels or areas with less stringent smoke-free laws. © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to original US government works.
Desrosiers N.A.,Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section |
Desrosiers N.A.,University of Maryland, Baltimore |
Milman G.,Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section |
Milman G.,Clinical Toxicology Laboratory at National Spine and Pain Centers |
And 9 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014
Oral fluid (OF) enables non-invasive sample collection for on-site drug testing, but performance of on-site tests with occasional and frequent smokers' OF to identify cannabinoid intake requires further evaluation. Furthermore, as far as we are aware, no studies have evaluated differences between cannabinoid disposition among OF collection devices with authentic OF samples after controlled cannabis administration. Fourteen frequent (≥4 times per week) and 10 occasional (less than twice a week) adult cannabis smokers smoked one 6.8 % Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cigarette ad libitum over 10 min. OF was collected with the StatSure Saliva Sampler, Oral-Eze, and Draeger DrugTest 5000 test cassette before and up to 30 h after cannabis smoking. Test cassettes were analyzed within 15 min and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry cannabinoid results were obtained within 24 h. Cannabinoid concentrations with the StatSure and Oral-Eze devices were compared and times of last cannabinoid detection (t last) and DrugTest 5000 test performance were assessed for different cannabinoid cutoffs. 11-nor-9-Carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) and cannabinol concentrations were significantly higher in Oral-Eze samples than in Stat-Sure samples. DrugTest 5000 t last for a positive cannabinoid test were median (range) 12 h (4-24 h) and 21 h (1-≥30 h) for occasional and frequent smokers, respectively. Detection windows in screening and confirmatory tests were usually shorter for occasional than for frequent smokers, especially when including THCCOOH ≥20 ng L-1 in confirmation criteria. No differences in t last were observed between collection devices, except for THC ≥2 μg L-1. We thus report significantly different THCCOOH and cannabinol, but not THC, concentrations between OF collection devices, which may affect OF data interpretation. The DrugTest 5000 on-site device had high diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency for cannabinoids. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA).
PubMed | Chemistry and Drug Metabolism Section
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Clinical chemistry | Year: 2014
There is extended urinary excretion of (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) in abstinent frequent cannabis smokers. We characterized THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide disposition in urine of frequent and occasional cannabis smokers, and we propose a model to predict recent cannabis smoking.Frequent and occasional smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette ad libitum. Urinary cannabinoids were quantified in each void by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry within 24 h of collection.No urine samples had measureable THC, 11-OH-THC, cannabidiol, or cannabinol. THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide were measurable in all frequent smokers urine and 60%, 100%, and 100% of occasional smokers urine samples, respectively. Pre- and postdose maximal concentrations (non- and creatinine normalized) and probability of being positive were significantly higher in frequent smokers samples. THC-glucuronide concentrations peaked 0.6-7.4 h after smoking; THCCOOH and THCCOOH-glucuronide concentrations were highly variable. At the newly adopted THCCOOH 175-g/L World Anti-Doping Agency decision limit, only 50% of frequent smokers were positive 0-6 h postdose; no occasional smokers samples were positive. An absolute %difference of 50% between 2 consecutive THC-glucuronide-positive samples with a creatinine-normalized concentration of 2 g/g in the first sample predicted cannabis smoking with efficiencies of 93.1% in frequent and 76.9% in occasional smokers within 6 h of first sample collection.These controlled urinary cannabinoid data provide a possible means of identifying recent cannabis intake in cannabis smokers urine within a short collection time frame after smoking.