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Lachenmeier D.W.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Kanteres F.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | Kanteres F.,Maastricht University | Rehm J.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: A novel approach to derive a threshold dose with respect to alcoholrelated harm, the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology, is introduced to provide a basis for evidence-based drinking guidelines. This study is the first to calculate a BMD for alcohol exposure using epidemiological cohort data. With this BMD we will be able to calculate the margin of exposure (MOE) for alcohol consumption, which can be used for comparative risk assessment and applied to setting public health policy. Methods: Benchmark dose-response modelling of epidemiological data gathered during a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for liver cirrhosis morbidity and mortality. Results: For a benchmark response (BMR) of 1.5%, the resulting BMD values were 30.9 g/day for males and 29.7 g/day for females; the corresponding lower one-sided confidence values were 25.7 and 27.2 g/day, respectively. The intake scenario for the Canadian population resulted in an MOE of 1.23. Intake scenarios for individuals as based on the Canadian drinking guidelines led to MOE values between 0.96 and 1.91. Using an uncertainty factor of 10, the acceptable daily intake for alcohol would be 2.6 g/day. Conclusions: The BMD approach was feasible in developing evidence-based guidelines for low-risk drinking. As our calculated MOEs result around unity (i.e. 1) for moderate drinking, it is evident that the current guidelines correspond very well to low risk on the dose-response curve. The BMD methodology therefore validates current guidelines. The results again highlight the health risk associated with alcohol consumption. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association. All rights reserved. Source

More G.,National University of La Plata | More G.,CONICET | More G.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Pantchev A.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Bovines are intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, and Sarcocystis hominis, which use canids, felids, or primates as definitive hosts, respectively. Cattle represent also intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis, but the definitive hosts of this parasite are not yet known. Sarcocystosis in cattle is frequently asymptomatic. The infection is characterized by the presence of thin-walled (S. cruzi) or thick-walled muscle cysts or sarcocysts (S. hominis, S. sinensis, and S. hirsuta). Recent reports suggest high prevalence of the zoonotic S. hominis in beef in Europe. We therefore aimed at differentiating Sarcocystis spp. in beef offered to consumers in Germany using molecular and microscopical methods, focusing on those species producing thick-walled sarcocysts. A total of 257 beef samples were obtained from different butcheries and supermarkets in Germany and processed by conventional and multiplex real-time PCR. In addition, 130 of these samples were processed by light microscopy and in 24.6 % thick-walled cysts were detected. Transmission electron microscopical analysis of six of these samples revealed an ultrastructural cyst wall pattern compatible with S. sinensis in five samples and with S. hominis in one sample. PCR-amplified 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments of 28 individual thick-walled cysts were sequenced, and sequence identities of ≥98 % with S. sinensis (n=22), S. hominis (n=5) and S. hirsuta (n=1) were observed. Moreover, nine Sarcocystis sp. 18S rDNA full length gene sequences were obtained, five of S. sinensis, three of S. hominis, and one of S. hirsuta. Out of all samples (n=257), 174 (67.7 %) tested positive by conventional PCR and 179 (69.6 %) by multiplex real-time PCR for Sarcocystis spp. Regarding individual species, 134 (52 %), 95 (37 %), 17 (6.6 %), and 16 (6.2 %) were positive for S. cruzi, S. sinensis, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis, respectively. In conclusion, S. sinensis is the most prevalent thick-walled Sarcocystis species in beef offered for consumption in Germany. Further studies are needed to identify the final host of S. sinensis as well as the potential role of this protozoan as a differential diagnosis to the zoonotic species S. hominis. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source

Pantchev A.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart | Sting R.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart | Bauerfeind R.,Justus Liebig University | Tyczka J.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Sachse K.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute Jena
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of chlamydiae in several mammalian host species. Clinical samples that previously tested positive in a Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR were retested using six species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify the chlamydial species involved. Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus was the agent most frequently found in cattle, sheep, horses, goats, and pigs. Detection in cattle of Cp. psittaci (11% of samples) and Chlamydia (C.) suis (9%), as well as Cp. psittaci in a goat sample was somewhat unexpected. DNA of two different chlamydiae was identified in 56 (12.7%) of 440 samples tested. Cp. felis was the predominant species found in cats, while in guinea pigs and rabbits only Cp. caviae was detected. Interestingly, the latter two pathogens were also identified in samples from dogs. The data show that mixed chlamydial infections are not rare and suggest an extended host range of individual species. L'objectif de la présente étude est d'analyser l'occurrence de chlamydiae et ce, dans plusieurs espèces mammaliennes hôtes. Des échantillons cliniques, préalablement confirmés positifs par PCR en temps réel spécifique de la famille des Chlamydiaceae, ont été de nouveau testés via six PCR en temps réel espèces-spécifiques. Ainsi, il en résulte que Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus est fréquemment retrouvé chez les bovins, moutons, chevaux, chèvres et cochons. La détection de Cp. psittaci and Chlamydia (C.) suis chez les bovidés (11% et 9% respectivement) ainsi que de Cp. psittaci dans un échantillon dóovidé se révèle quelque peu inattendu. Sur 440 échantillons testés, 56 (soit 12,7%) contiennent l'ADN de deux espèces différentes de chlamydiae. Cp. felis représente l'espèce dominante chez le chat alors que Cp. caviae est présente uniquement chez les cobaye et lapin. Curieusement, ces deux pathogènes sont également détectés dans des échantillons d'origine canine. Les données tendent à démontrer que les infections simultanées par différentes espèces chlamydiales sont rarement des cas isolés et suggèrent dès lors d'étendre la gamme d'hôtes des espèces individuelles. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Monakhova Yu.B.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Monakhova Yu.B.,Bruker Biospin Gmbh | Monakhova Yu.B.,Chernyshevsky Saratov State University | Kuballa T.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Lachenmeier D.W.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe
Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The main achievements of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in combination with different chemometric methods in the analysis of food products in the last 40 years are reviewed. The essence of chemometric methods used for the analysis and interpretation of NMR spectra is briefly described. Sample preparation for NMR-spectroscopic analysis is characterized. Methods for the mathematical treatment of NMR spectra (smoothing, Fourier transformation, bucketing, normalization, and selection of spectral ranges) are considered. Currently available methods for the suppression of the signals of macrocomponents, including those for the simultaneous suppression of several signals, are described. The results are illustrated based on examples of analysis of different classes of foodstuffs and beverages with the use of NMR spectroscopy and chemometric methods for classification and discrimination (geographical and botanical origin as well as validating checking the brand authenticity). © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. Source

Skiera C.,University of Wurzburg | Steliopoulos P.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Kuballa T.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Holzgrabe U.,University of Wurzburg | Diehl B.,Spectral Service
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012

Within the course of lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxides are formed as primary products. They can be used as analytical markers to assess the deterioration status of oils and fats. Here a new 1H-NMR assay to determine the hydroperoxide amount in edible oils is presented. We were able to show that the analytical performance of the method is similar to that of the commonly used peroxide value (PV) according to Wheeler. A total of 290 edible oil samples were analyzed using both methods. For some oil varieties considerable discrepancies were found between the results obtained. In the case of black seed and olive oil, two substances could be identified that cause positive (black seed oil) and negative (olive oils) deviations from the theoretical PV expected from the NMR values. © 2012 AOCS. Source

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