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Lachenmeier D.W.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Kanteres F.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | Kanteres F.,Maastricht University | Rehm J.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Background: A novel approach to derive a threshold dose with respect to alcoholrelated harm, the benchmark dose (BMD) methodology, is introduced to provide a basis for evidence-based drinking guidelines. This study is the first to calculate a BMD for alcohol exposure using epidemiological cohort data. With this BMD we will be able to calculate the margin of exposure (MOE) for alcohol consumption, which can be used for comparative risk assessment and applied to setting public health policy. Methods: Benchmark dose-response modelling of epidemiological data gathered during a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for liver cirrhosis morbidity and mortality. Results: For a benchmark response (BMR) of 1.5%, the resulting BMD values were 30.9 g/day for males and 29.7 g/day for females; the corresponding lower one-sided confidence values were 25.7 and 27.2 g/day, respectively. The intake scenario for the Canadian population resulted in an MOE of 1.23. Intake scenarios for individuals as based on the Canadian drinking guidelines led to MOE values between 0.96 and 1.91. Using an uncertainty factor of 10, the acceptable daily intake for alcohol would be 2.6 g/day. Conclusions: The BMD approach was feasible in developing evidence-based guidelines for low-risk drinking. As our calculated MOEs result around unity (i.e. 1) for moderate drinking, it is evident that the current guidelines correspond very well to low risk on the dose-response curve. The BMD methodology therefore validates current guidelines. The results again highlight the health risk associated with alcohol consumption. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association. All rights reserved.


Pantchev A.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart | Sting R.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart | Bauerfeind R.,Justus Liebig University | Tyczka J.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Sachse K.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute Jena
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of chlamydiae in several mammalian host species. Clinical samples that previously tested positive in a Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR were retested using six species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify the chlamydial species involved. Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus was the agent most frequently found in cattle, sheep, horses, goats, and pigs. Detection in cattle of Cp. psittaci (11% of samples) and Chlamydia (C.) suis (9%), as well as Cp. psittaci in a goat sample was somewhat unexpected. DNA of two different chlamydiae was identified in 56 (12.7%) of 440 samples tested. Cp. felis was the predominant species found in cats, while in guinea pigs and rabbits only Cp. caviae was detected. Interestingly, the latter two pathogens were also identified in samples from dogs. The data show that mixed chlamydial infections are not rare and suggest an extended host range of individual species. L'objectif de la présente étude est d'analyser l'occurrence de chlamydiae et ce, dans plusieurs espèces mammaliennes hôtes. Des échantillons cliniques, préalablement confirmés positifs par PCR en temps réel spécifique de la famille des Chlamydiaceae, ont été de nouveau testés via six PCR en temps réel espèces-spécifiques. Ainsi, il en résulte que Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus est fréquemment retrouvé chez les bovins, moutons, chevaux, chèvres et cochons. La détection de Cp. psittaci and Chlamydia (C.) suis chez les bovidés (11% et 9% respectivement) ainsi que de Cp. psittaci dans un échantillon dóovidé se révèle quelque peu inattendu. Sur 440 échantillons testés, 56 (soit 12,7%) contiennent l'ADN de deux espèces différentes de chlamydiae. Cp. felis représente l'espèce dominante chez le chat alors que Cp. caviae est présente uniquement chez les cobaye et lapin. Curieusement, ces deux pathogènes sont également détectés dans des échantillons d'origine canine. Les données tendent à démontrer que les infections simultanées par différentes espèces chlamydiales sont rarement des cas isolés et suggèrent dès lors d'étendre la gamme d'hôtes des espèces individuelles. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.


More G.,National University of La Plata | More G.,CONICET | More G.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute | Pantchev A.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Stuttgart | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2014

Bovines are intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, and Sarcocystis hominis, which use canids, felids, or primates as definitive hosts, respectively. Cattle represent also intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis, but the definitive hosts of this parasite are not yet known. Sarcocystosis in cattle is frequently asymptomatic. The infection is characterized by the presence of thin-walled (S. cruzi) or thick-walled muscle cysts or sarcocysts (S. hominis, S. sinensis, and S. hirsuta). Recent reports suggest high prevalence of the zoonotic S. hominis in beef in Europe. We therefore aimed at differentiating Sarcocystis spp. in beef offered to consumers in Germany using molecular and microscopical methods, focusing on those species producing thick-walled sarcocysts. A total of 257 beef samples were obtained from different butcheries and supermarkets in Germany and processed by conventional and multiplex real-time PCR. In addition, 130 of these samples were processed by light microscopy and in 24.6 % thick-walled cysts were detected. Transmission electron microscopical analysis of six of these samples revealed an ultrastructural cyst wall pattern compatible with S. sinensis in five samples and with S. hominis in one sample. PCR-amplified 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments of 28 individual thick-walled cysts were sequenced, and sequence identities of ≥98 % with S. sinensis (n=22), S. hominis (n=5) and S. hirsuta (n=1) were observed. Moreover, nine Sarcocystis sp. 18S rDNA full length gene sequences were obtained, five of S. sinensis, three of S. hominis, and one of S. hirsuta. Out of all samples (n=257), 174 (67.7 %) tested positive by conventional PCR and 179 (69.6 %) by multiplex real-time PCR for Sarcocystis spp. Regarding individual species, 134 (52 %), 95 (37 %), 17 (6.6 %), and 16 (6.2 %) were positive for S. cruzi, S. sinensis, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis, respectively. In conclusion, S. sinensis is the most prevalent thick-walled Sarcocystis species in beef offered for consumption in Germany. Further studies are needed to identify the final host of S. sinensis as well as the potential role of this protozoan as a differential diagnosis to the zoonotic species S. hominis. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


Walch S.G.,University of Medical Sciences and Technology | Walch S.G.,University of Federal Defense Munich | Tinzoh L.N.,Institute Prof. Dr. Kurz GmbH | Zimmermann B.F.,Institute Prof. Dr. Kurz GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects. © 2011 Walch, Tinzoh, Zimmermann, Stühlinger and Lachenmeier.


Skiera C.,University of Würzburg | Steliopoulos P.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Kuballa T.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Diehl B.,Spectral Service | Holzgrabe U.,University of Würzburg
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2014

Indices like acid value, peroxide value, and saponification value play an important role in quality control and identification of lipids. Requirements on these parameters are given by the monographs of the European pharmacopeia. 1H NMR spectroscopy provides a fast and simple alternative to these classical approaches. In the present work a new 1H NMR approach to determine the acid value is described. The method was validated using a statistical approach based on a variance components model. The performance under repeatability and in-house reproducibility conditions was assessed. We applied this 1H NMR assay to a wide range of different fatty oils. A total of 305 oil and fat samples were examined by both the classical and the NMR method. Except for hard fat, the data obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. The 1H NMR method was adapted to analyse waxes and oleyloleat. Furthermore, the effect of solvent and in the case of castor oil the effect of the oil matrix on line broadening and chemical shift of the carboxyl group signal are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Monakhova Yu.B.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Monakhova Yu.B.,Bruker Biospin Gmbh | Monakhova Yu.B.,Chernyshevsky Saratov State University | Kuballa T.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Lachenmeier D.W.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe
Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

The main achievements of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy in combination with different chemometric methods in the analysis of food products in the last 40 years are reviewed. The essence of chemometric methods used for the analysis and interpretation of NMR spectra is briefly described. Sample preparation for NMR-spectroscopic analysis is characterized. Methods for the mathematical treatment of NMR spectra (smoothing, Fourier transformation, bucketing, normalization, and selection of spectral ranges) are considered. Currently available methods for the suppression of the signals of macrocomponents, including those for the simultaneous suppression of several signals, are described. The results are illustrated based on examples of analysis of different classes of foodstuffs and beverages with the use of NMR spectroscopy and chemometric methods for classification and discrimination (geographical and botanical origin as well as validating checking the brand authenticity). © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Skiera C.,University of Würzburg | Steliopoulos P.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Kuballa T.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Holzgrabe U.,University of Würzburg | Diehl B.,Spectral Service
Lipid Technology | Year: 2012

Here we describe a novel 1H NMR assay for the determination of FFAs in edible oils. The analytical performance of the NMR assay is similar to that of the commonly used acid value (AV) method. A total of 120 edible oil samples were analysed by both approaches. Except for pumpkin seed oil, showing slight deviations, there was a good compliance between the results obtained from the two methods. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Skiera C.,University of Würzburg | Steliopoulos P.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Kuballa T.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Holzgrabe U.,University of Würzburg | Diehl B.,Spectral Service
European Food Research and Technology | Year: 2012

Aldehydes, formed as secondary oxidation products during the autoxidation process of oils and fats, are analytical markers used to assess the lipid deterioration status. Generally, the level of aldehydes is expressed as the p-anisidine value (AV). This deterioration index is based on the reaction of the carbonyl group with p-anisidine leading to the formation of an intensively coloured Schiff base which is determined spectroscopically (UV/ViS). 1H NMR provides an alternative approach by enabling the quantification of individual aldehydes like n-alkanals, 2-alkenals or (E,E)-2,4-alkadienals. This work illustrates that the AV can be modelled as a linear combination of the NMR integrals of aldehydes. A functional relationship was derived on the basis of calibration experiments. The suitability of the model is shown by comparing the NMR-determined AVs with the classical AVs of 79 commercially available edible oils of different oil types. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Mayer S.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Lachenmeier D.W.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe
Journal of the Institute of Brewing | Year: 2015

A time series analysis of the development of bitterness units (BU) of a collective of 1,202 Pilsner beer samples analysed between 1983 and 2013 shows a small but statistically significant decline from values of around 30 BU in the 1980s to values of around 27 in the last years. The results confirm a trend to lower hopped Pilsner beers, which could derive from economic pressures on the breweries combined with a lack of regulations, or a change in consumer preference. So-called Pilsner beers with extremely low BU values are judged as a being misleading to the consumer, which is an offence against European food law. © 2015 The Institute of Brewing & Distilling.


Skiera C.,University of Würzburg | Steliopoulos P.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Kuballa T.,Chemisches und Veterinaruntersuchungsamt Karlsruhe | Holzgrabe U.,University of Würzburg | Diehl B.,Spectral Service
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2012

Within the course of lipid peroxidation, hydroperoxides are formed as primary products. They can be used as analytical markers to assess the deterioration status of oils and fats. Here a new 1H-NMR assay to determine the hydroperoxide amount in edible oils is presented. We were able to show that the analytical performance of the method is similar to that of the commonly used peroxide value (PV) according to Wheeler. A total of 290 edible oil samples were analyzed using both methods. For some oil varieties considerable discrepancies were found between the results obtained. In the case of black seed and olive oil, two substances could be identified that cause positive (black seed oil) and negative (olive oils) deviations from the theoretical PV expected from the NMR values. © 2012 AOCS.

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