Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz

Bad Kostritz, Germany

Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz

Bad Kostritz, Germany
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Gleichmann K.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Unger B.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Brandt A.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2017

Zeolithische Molekularsiebe werden seit über 60 Jahren in industriellen Prozessen, hauptsächlich als hoch effiziente Adsorbenzien in Reinigungs- oder Trennprozessen in Gas- oder Flüssigphase eingesetzt. Um den unterschiedlichen Anforderungen in der Endanwendung Genüge zu tun, wurden im Laufe der Zeit unterschiedliche Herstellverfahren für Molekularsiebe entwickelt. In diesem Übersichtsartikel wird anhand von Beispielen der Einfluss von Synthese und/oder Formgebung auf die Eigenschaften hydrophiler, zeolithischer Molekularsiebe in Hinblick auf deren industriellen Anwendungen aufgezeigt und erläutert. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Mendes P.A.P.,University of Porto | Ribeiro A.M.,University of Porto | Gleichmann K.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Ferreira A.F.P.,University of Porto | Rodrigues A.E.,University of Porto
Journal of CO2 Utilization | Year: 2017

The study of CO2 separation from typical flue gas streams containing other gases like N2, CO, H2 and CH4 by Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) process using binderless 5A zeolite beads as adsorbent is the main objective of this work. Firstly, single component adsorption equilibrium isotherms of CO2, CH4, N2, CO and H2 have been determined by gravimetric technique in a magnetic suspension microbalance (Rubotherm®) at three different temperatures (305, 333, and 363 K), up to 5 bar. A comparison between the obtained adsorption equilibrium data and reported values in the literature for other 5A zeolite adsorbents was performed. Dynamic studies were also done through single and binary breakthrough curves of N2, CO, H2 and CH4 at 4 bar and 308 K. A PSA experiment was performed, at pilot scale, with the aim of validating the developed PSA model for CO2 capture with the binderless 5A zeolite adsorbent. The adsorption equilibrium isotherms were fitted with the Toth model and breakthrough curves and the PSA experiment were simulated taking into account the adsorption dynamic behaviour of a fixed bed. CO2 recovery values between 81 and 98% and energy consumption between 5.7 and 3.8 MJ/kgCO2, for purification of a stream containing 10% of CO2 by different PTSA cycles were attained. For all designed PTSA cycles the product purity was higher than 95% in CO2; and the productivity was always above 13 kg/mbed 3/h. The best results are obtained with a high pressure of 3.5 bar, a low pressure of 0.3 bar and a heating temperature of 403 K. For these operating conditions the lowest value of energy consumption is obtained (3.8 MJ/kgCO2) with a high CO2 recovery (94.8%) and high CO2 purity (95.2%). The achieved productivity was of 16 kg/mbed 3/h.

Janchen J.,Wildau University of Applied Sciences | Schumann K.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Thrun E.,ZeoSolar e.V. | Brandt A.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies | Year: 2012

Novel binderless zeolite beads of types A and X have been synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetry, water adsorption isotherm measurements, cyclic hydrothermal treatments and storage tests. The binderless molecular sieves show an improved adsorption capacity, sufficient hydrothermal stability, higher specific energies and the potential for a better performance density of the storage. Both open and closed storage tests have shown comparable adsorption capacities and specific energies for the binderless molecular sieves. A significantly higher discharging temperature, however, could be realized with the open storage system. © The Author 2012.

Narin G.,University of Porto | Narin G.,Usak University | Martins V.F.D.,University of Porto | Campo M.,University of Porto | And 7 more authors.
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2014

In this work 13X zeolite binderless beads were tested as a new promising material for polymer-grade olefin production from olefin/paraffin mixtures by VPSA technology. In order to characterize the adsorbent and its potential for the target separations, the equilibrium isotherms of propane, propylene, ethane and ethylene were measured gravimetrically on a 13X zeolite binderless sample, in a temperature range from 50 °C to 150 °C and pressure up to 5 bar. Dynamic studies were performed at 100 °C and 1.5 bar in a fixed-bed single-column unit. The adsorbent under evaluation presented high olefin selectivity, with values between 7 and 9 for the C2 pair and about 8 for the C3 pair. A mathematical model was proposed and validated by the breakthrough experiments. With this model, pilot scale 5-step VPSA cycles were successfully designed and tested experimentally to produce polymer-grade olefins. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Silva J.A.C.,Polytechnic Institute of Bragança | Cunha A.F.,University of Porto | Schumann K.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Rodrigues A.E.,University of Porto
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2014

The binary sorption CO2 and CH4 in binderless beads of 13X zeolite has been investigated between 313 and 473 K and total pressure up to 5 atm through fixed bed adsorption experiments. The amount adsorbed of CO2 and CH4 is around 4.7 mmol/gads and 0.4 mmol/gads, respectively, at 313 K and 3.7 atm in a 50/50 equimolar mixture. In a 25(CO2)/75(CH4) mixture the amount adsorbed is 4.0 and 0.84 mmol/g at the same temperature and pressure. Experimental selectivities CO2/CH4 range from 37 at a low pressure of 0.667 atm to approximately 5 at the high temperature of 423 K. Comparing these values with the ones in literature CO2 adsorption capacity is 20% higher than in CECA 13X binder pellets. The CO2/CH4 binary isotherms were fitted with the extended Fowler model that takes into account interaction between adsorbed molecules at adjacent sites suggesting a moderate attraction between CO2 and CH4. The model is validated through a graphical method using the single component isotherm parameters. The breakthrough curves measured show a plateau of pure CH4 of approximately 6 min depending of the operating conditions chosen.

Mehlhorn D.,University of Leipzig | Valiullin R.,University of Leipzig | Karger J.,University of Leipzig | Schumann K.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | And 2 more authors.
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2014

Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR is applied for probing the rate of mass transfer of water molecules in zeolite molecular sieves (beads) of type 4A and NaX (NaMSX). Water diffusivities in the binderless species are found to notably exceed the diffusivities in the binder-containing beads. Diffusivity enhancement in the binderless species is referred to both the existence of microporous zeolite "bridges" connecting the individual particles (crystallites) of genuine zeolite structure and the notably larger diameters of the transport pores within the binderless beads. Either of these structural features leads to an acceleration of long-range diffusion and, hence, to reduced uptake and release times on the individual beads. Both influences act in parallel. In this case the (apparent) activation energy of long-range diffusion can be expected to be intermediate between the activation energy of intracrystalline diffusion and the isosteric heat of adsorption as experimentally observed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Schumann K.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Unger B.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Brandt A.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Scheffler F.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2012

In the last few years novel binderless molecular sieves as high-performance materials were introduced into technical adsorption processes. Besides of the 100% active adsorption matter such material exhibits an advantageous secondary pore system. In this paper a more detailed investigation of the structure and the generation thereof is presented. To characterize the pore structure of the system SEM, EDX, Hg-porosimetry, as well as adsorption measurements (N 2 and CO 2) were used. For additional investigations XRD and XRF were applied. As a result of the special manufacturing process - granulation of zeolite NaMSX powder with metakaolin/caustic under high energy input followed by an alkaline treatment - two different types of zeolite morphologies were obtained: On the outer surface of the beads typical octahedral zeolite X crystals are monitored as a result of conventional and epitaxial crystal growth. In contrast the interior of the beads exhibits polycrystalline structures consisting of zeolite X in untypical shape, which is most probably the result of zeolite formation in dense matter. Due to the confined space conventional and epitaxial growth is inhibited. Obviously the original zeolite crystals are intergrown by polycrystalline zeolite NaMSX matter originated from converted metakaolin, and by the way forming macro pores. Said structure formation is the cause for the surprisingly high mechanical stability of the binderless shaped bodies. The existence of the superior secondary pore system and the high mechanical stability of binderless type NaMSX shapes can be explained as result of different pathways of the conversion of metakaolin into zeolite matter due to the existence of areas of different densities after the granulation process. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Silva J.A.C.,Polytechnic Institute of Bragança | Schumann K.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Rodrigues A.E.,University of Porto
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials | Year: 2012

The sorption equilibrium of CO 2 and CH 4 in binderless beads of 13X zeolite has been investigated between 313 and 373 K and pressure up to 4 atm. The amount adsorbed of CO 2 and CH 4 is around 5.2 mmol/g ads and 1.2 mmol/g ads, respectively, at 313 K and 4 atm. Comparing these values with the ones in literature the value of CO 2 is 20% higher than in CECA 13X binder pellets. It is also found that isotherms are pronounced Type I for CO 2 and almost linear for CH 4. The CO 2 isotherms were modeled using a simple deviation from Langmuir isotherm that takes into account interaction between adsorbed molecules at adjacent sites (Fowler model) suggesting a moderate repulsion. Henry's constants range from 143 to 11.1 mmol/g ads.atm for CO 2 and 0.45 to 0.27 mmol/g ads.atm for CH 4 between 313 and 373 K, respectively. The heats of sorption at zero coverage are 43.1 kJ/mol for CO 2 and 9.2 kJ/mol for CH 4. The sorption kinetics has been investigated by the Zero-Length Column technique (ZLC). Recipes to analyze ZLC desorption curves in pellets of adsorbents are reviewed and it is derived a criteria which indicates that for the sorption rate be measured macroscopically the time of the experiment (that should be above a few seconds) is directly calculated with the following expression: t0.1≥7.02×10-2rc2Dc. Based on such criteria it is shown that crystal diffusivity of CO 2 in 13X can be measured macroscopically by ZLC, being the same measurement for CH 4 practically impossible. The crystal diffusivity of CO 2 measured experimentally is 5.8 × 10 -15 m 2/s and 1.3 × 10 -15 m 2/s at 373 and 313 K, respectively. These values are comparable to the ones measured by a frequency response and pulse chromatography techniques reported in literature. The ZLC desorption curves for CH 4 were measured under an equilibrium regime. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Roelofs F.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Vogelsberger W.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2013

The solubility of two commercially available microscale quartz powders in water under biological-like conditions is investigated. The experimental results are evaluated by common phenomenological theories and by complete analysis of the Gibbs free energy of the system particles-solution (gradient method). The different theories are compared with each other, and the interrelations between the theories are discussed. The application of the gradient method always leads to the best agreement between experimental results and theory because the gradient model considers the simultaneous changes of both particle size and particle concentration during dissolution. The optimal values of saturation concentrations and dissolution rate constants are determined by statistical analyses and by calculation of the coefficient of determination. The expected influence of temperature on the dissolution behavior is confirmed. Higher values of the crystal strain of the quartz samples result in higher values of the dissolution rate constant and more rapid dissolution. The saturation concentrations and rate constants determined for the commercially available quartz samples are at least 1 order of magnitude larger than most values reported in the literature for natural quartz. In accordance with statements found in the literature, this fact should be taken into account for the assessment of the potential health risk of the investigated commercially available quartz powders. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Schumann K.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Brandt A.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Unger B.,Chemiewerk Bad Kostritz | Scheffler F.,Otto Von Guericke University of Magdeburg
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik | Year: 2011

Zeolite molecular sieves belong to the most important adsorbents. For dynamic, technical adsorption processes the use of shaped bodies is required. In conventional molecular sieves usually clay type minerals are used as binder. In this paper novel binderless zeolite molecular sieves and their advantages in comparison to binder containing molecular sieves are shown. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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