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Rodriguez-Dozal S.,National Health Research Institute | Riojas Rodriguez H.,National Health Research Institute | Hernandez-Avila M.,Undersecretary for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention | Van Oostdam J.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2012

This project was initiated by the North America Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). Its main purpose was to obtain an initial profile on pregnant woman's exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in North America (Canada, the United States and Mexico). Persistent organic pollutants are transferred to the fetus via the placenta during the pregnancy or to the infant via maternal milk; therefore, the pregnant woman's body burden is important because of the higher exposures and potential health effects in the fetus and infant. This paper presents the results from 240 pregnant women in 10 Mexican cities, and includes the concentrations of various POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs) in maternal plasma. We found concentrations of p,p′-DDE in maternal samples from Coatzacoalcos to be 60% higher than those found in Ciudad Obregon, which had the second highest concentration. Pregnant women from Merida had higher mean concentrations of PCBs than all women in other regions. Results for PCDDs and PCDFs plus dioxin-like PCBs data were only available on the basis of composite samples, and their concentrations are similar in most cities except for Coatzacoalcos, which had more than double the concentration found in other cities. Although this study provides useful information on the variability of POPs in specific populations and possible regional/local differences, these results cannot be generalized to the entire Mexican population because of differences in age, gender, sources of exposure and nonrandom nature of the sample.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Health Research Institute, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, McMaster University and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

Under the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) and its Sound Management of Chemicals (SMOC) program, a tri-national human contaminant monitoring initiative was completed to provide baseline exposure information for several environmental contaminants in Canada, Mexico and the United States (U.S). Blood samples were collected from primiparous women in Canada and Mexico, and were analysed for a suite of environmental contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene(p,p-DDE),beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (-HCH), mercury and lead. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was conducted using data from Canadian and Mexican primiparous mothers, adjusting for ethnicity group, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, years at current city and ever-smoking status. Concentrations of p,p-DDE, -HCH, and lead were found to be higher among Mexican participants; however, concentrations of most PCBs among Mexican participants were similar to Canadian primiparous women after adjusting for covariates. Concentrations of total mercury were generally higher among Mexican primiparous women although this difference was smaller as age increased. This initial dataset can be used to determine priorities for future activities and to track progress in the management of the selected chemicals, both domestically and on a broader cooperative basis within North America.


Saravanabhavan G.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau | Guay M.,Healthy Environmental | Langlois T.,Institute National Of Sante Publique Du Quebec | Giroux S.,Statistics Canada | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2013

Human exposure to phthalates occurs through multiple sources and pathways. In the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2009, 11 phthalate metabolites, namely, MMP, MEP, MnBP, MBzP, MCHP, MCPP, MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, MnOP, and MiNP were measured in urine samples of 6-49 year old survey respondents (n=3236). The phthalate metabolites biomonitoring data from this nationally-representative Canadian survey are presented here. The metabolites MEP, MnBP, MBzP, MCPP, MEHP, MEOHP and MEHHP were detected in >90% of Canadians while MMP, MCHP, MnOP and MiNP were detected in <20% of the Canadian population. Step-wise regression analyses were carried out to identify important predictors of volumetric concentrations (μg/L) of the metabolites in the general population. Individual multiple regression models with covariates age, sex, creatinine, fasting status, and the interaction terms age. ×. creatinine, age. ×. sex and fasting status. ×. creatinine were constructed for MEP, MnBP, MBzP, MCPP, MEHP, MEOHP and MEHHP. The least square geometric mean (LSGM) estimates for volumetric concentration (μg/L) of the metabolites derived from respective regression models were used to assess the patterns in the metabolite concentrations among population sub-groups. The results indicate that children had significantly higher urinary concentrations of MnBP, MBzP, MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP and MCPP than adolescents and adults. Moreover, MEP, MBzP, MnBP and MEOHP concentrations in females were significantly higher than in males. We observed that fasting status significantly affects the concentrations of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP, and MCPP metabolites analyzed in this study. Moreover, our results indicate that the sampling time could affect the DEHP metabolite concentrations in the general Canadian population. © 2013.


Lye E.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau | Legrand M.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau | Clarke J.,Statistics Canada | Probert A.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau
Canadian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES: We present total mercury (THg) in blood of Canadians 6-79 years of age from the first to-date nationally-representative survey, the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). This analysis is particularly relevant in the context of recent changes to Health Canada's blood Hg guidance values. METHODS: We used data from cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the CHMS, in particular focussing on 5,319 respondents aged 6-79 years for whom blood THg data were available. We calculated descriptive statistics of blood Hg levels and analyzed the associations between blood THg levels and relevant variables. We also compared blood THg levels to existing Health Canada blood Hg guidance values. RESULTS: The geometric mean blood THg level of the Canadian population was 0.69 μg/L (95% CI 0.56-0.86 μg/L). The majority (97.8%) of Canadian women aged 16-49 years, including pregnant women, had blood Hg values below the provisional HC blood guidance value of 8 μg/L. Mean blood THg levels were significantly higher in the "other or mixed" (1.14 μg/L, p=0.0003) and Asian (1.41 μg/L, p=0.0476) groups compared to those who selfidentified as solely Caucasian (0.62 μg/L). There was however no significant difference between participants self-identified as Aboriginal Canadians versus Caucasians (0.56 μg/L vs 0.62 μg/L, p=0.2902). Fish and shellfish consumption significantly influenced blood Hg levels, as did alcohol consumption and the presence of dental amalgams. CONCLUSION: This paper presents the first description of blood THg levels in the general Canadian population. These findings will serve as a national baseline for monitoring future changes should they arise. © Canadian Public Health Association, 2013. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Consultant, Healthy Environmental, Chemicals Surveillance Bureau, Government of Nunavut and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700 g/kg lipids for p,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p-DDE) and 990 g/kg lipids for -hexachlorocyclohexane (-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population.


Arbuckle T.E.,Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch | Davis K.,Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch | Marro L.,Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch | Fisher M.,Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch | And 6 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2014

Bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates are endocrine disruptors possibly linked to adverse reproductive and neurodevelopmental outcomes. These chemicals have commonly been measured in urine in population surveys; however, such data are limited for large populations of pregnant women, especially for the critical first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to measure BPA and phthalate metabolites in first trimester urine samples collected in a large national-scale pregnancy cohort study and to identify major predictors of exposure. Approximately 2000 women were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy from ten sites across Canada. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic and socio-economic data on participants and a spot urine sample was collected and analyzed for total BPA (GC-MS/MS) and 11 phthalate metabolites (LC-MS/MS). The geometric mean (GM) maternal urinary concentration of total BPA, uncorrected for specific gravity, was 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.85) μg/L. Almost 88% of the women had detectable urinary concentrations of BPA. An analysis of urinary concentrations of BPA by maternal characteristics with specific gravity as a covariate in the linear model showed that the geometric mean concentrations: (1) decreased with increasing maternal age, (2) were higher in current smokers or women who quit during pregnancy compared to never smokers, and (3) tended to be higher in women who provided a fasting urine sample and who were born in Canada, and had lower incomes and education. Several of the phthalate metabolites analyzed were not prevalent in this population (MCHP, MMP, MiNP, MOP), with percentages detectable at less than 15%. The phthalate metabolites with the highest measured concentrations were MEP (GM: 32.02. μg/L) and MnBP (GM: 11.59. μg/L). MBzP urinary concentrations decreased with maternal age but did not differ by time of urine collection; whereas the DEHP metabolites tended to be higher in older women and when the urine was collected later in the day. This study provides the first biomonitoring results for the largest population of pregnant women sampled in the first trimester of pregnancy. The results indicate that exposure among this population of pregnant women to these chemicals is comparable to or even lower than that observed in a Canadian national population-based survey. © 2014 .


Curren M.S.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau | Davis K.,Healthy Environmental
International Journal of Circumpolar Health | Year: 2014

Human biomonitoring studies in the Canadian Arctic have measured a wide range of metals and persistent organic pollutants in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers during two time periods in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. This analysis provides preliminary estimates on sample sizes and sampling frequencies required to measure significant changes in maternal blood concentrations for PCB 153 and total mercury. For example, sample sizes of 35-40 mothers permit the detection of a 40% decrease in these chemical concentrations between two groups (e.g. communities or regions). Improvements in method sensitivity can be achieved by on-going sampling over multiple time periods (e.g. 4 or 5) in these regions, or increasing sample sizes. © 2014 Meredith S. Curren et al.


Foster W.G.,McMaster University | Cheung A.P.,University of British Columbia | Davis K.,Healthy Environmental | Graves G.,Dalhousie University | And 7 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

The developing foetus is thought to be at increased risk from exposure to environmental contaminants; however, developmental exposure data is notably lacking for many contaminants. Moreover, potential regional differences or effect of place of birth on residue levels measured in pregnant women is also unknown. Therefore, as part of a multinational biomonitoring study, 125 primiparous pregnant Canadian women were recruited from five Canadian centres (Vancouver, Calgary, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Halifax). Metals in whole blood and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in plasma were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), respectively. Of the 125 women recruited to this study, complete data sets were available for 123 of which 103 were Canadian born. Data were analysed by analysis of covariance and linear mixed models using age and body mass index as covariates. The metals cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and total mercury (Hg) were detected in more than 93% of the samples tested. β-Hexachlorohexane (β-HCH), oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (PBDE-153, PBDE-47), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB-138, -153, and -180), and the dioxin-like PCB congener PCB-118 were quantified in greater than 70% of the samples tested. Significant differences in the concentrations of Cd, Ni, PCB-153, and p,p'-DDE were found between the centres studied. Furthermore, foreign-born pregnant women had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, β-HCH, PBDE-47, PCB-138, -153, -180, and p,p'-DDE compared to Canadian born pregnant women. Taken together, the data suggest that there are potential regional differences in contaminant body burden and place of birth may also contribute to differences in maternal residue concentrations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Curren M.S.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau | Davis K.,Healthy Environmental | Liang C.L.,Healthy Environmental | Adlard B.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

The exposure of Aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Arctic to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals through the consumption of traditional food items is well recognized; however, less information is available for Canadian immigrants. The direct comparison of blood chemical concentrations for expectant primiparous women sampled in the Inuvik and Baffin regions of the Canadian Arctic, as well as Canadian- and foreign-born women from five southern Canadian centers (Halifax, Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Calgary), provides relative exposure information for samples of northern and southern mothers in Canada. Based on our analyses, Canadian mothers are exposed to a similar suite of contaminants; however, Inuit first birth mothers residing in the Canadian Arctic had higher age-adjusted geometric mean concentrations for several legacy POPs regulated under the Stockholm Convention, along with lead and total mercury. Significant differences in exposure were observed for Inuit mothers from Baffin who tended to demonstrate higher blood concentrations of POPs and total mercury compared with Inuit mothers from Inuvik. Conversely, northern mothers showed a significantly lower age-adjusted geometric mean concentration for a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-153) compared to southern mothers. Furthermore, southern Canadian mothers born outside of Canada showed the highest individual concentrations measured in the study: 1700. μg/kg lipids for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 990. μg/kg lipids for β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH). Data from Cycle 1 (2007-2009) of the nationally-representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) places these results in a national biomonitoring context and affirms that foreign-born women of child-bearing age experience higher exposures to many POPs and metals than their Canadian-born counterparts in the general population. © 2014 The Authors.


Donaldson S.G.,Chemicals Surveillance Bureau
International journal of circumpolar health | Year: 2013

Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic.

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