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Princess Margaret, Hong Kong

Abhary S.,Flinders University | Burdon K.P.,Flinders University | Kuot A.,Flinders University | Javadiyan S.,Flinders University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), present in human serum, is an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and contributes to vascular disease. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) is an ADMA degrading enzyme that has two isoforms: DDAHI and DDAHII. We sought to determine whether serum ADMA levels in type 2 diabetes are influenced by common polymorphisms in the DDAH1 and DDAH2 genes. Methodology/Principal Findings: Relevant clinical parameters were measured and peripheral whole blood obtained for serum and genetic analysis on 343 participants with type 2 diabetes. Serum ADMA concentrations were determined by mass spectroscopy. Twenty six tag SNPs in the DDAH1 and 10 in the DDAH2 gene were genotyped in all subjects and tested for association with serum ADMA levels. Several SNPs and haplotypes in the DDAH genes were strongly associated with ADMA levels. Most significantly in the DDAH1 gene, rs669173 (p = 2.96 X 10-7), rs7521189(p = 6.40 X 10 -7), rs2474123 (p = 0.00082) and rs13373844 (p = 0.00027), and in the DDAH2 gene, rs3131383 (p = 0.0029) and the TGCCCAGGAG haplotype (p = 0.0012) were significantly associated with ADMA levels. Sub-analysis by diabetic retinopathy (DR) status revealed these variants were associated with ADMA levels predominantly in participants without DR. Combined analysis of the most strongly associated SNPs in DDAH1 (rs669173) and DDAH2 (rs3131383) revealed an additive effect (p = 1.37 X 10-8) on ADMA levels. Conclusions/Significance: Genetic variation in the DDAH1 and 2 genes is significantly associated with serum ADMA levels. Further studies are required to determine the pathophysiological significance of elevated serum ADMA in type 2 diabetes and to better understand how DDAH gene variation influences ADMA levels. © 2010 Abhary et al. Source

Gupta V.,CSMMU UP | Gupta A.,CSMMU UP | Jafar T.,CSMMU UP | Agrawal S.,SGPGIMS | And 6 more authors.
Cytokine | Year: 2012

Background: Tumour necrosis factor alpha is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and obesity. Aim of this study is to investigate in a North Indian female population the impact of the G-308A TNF-α variant on various components of the metabolic syndrome, Insulin Resistance, serum TNF-α and Leptin levels. Methods: The G-308A TNF-α polymorphism has been studied in 269 females with metabolic syndrome (NCEP ATP III criteria) (age 31.91. ± 6.05) and 272 healthy females without metabolic syndrome (age 30.96. ± 7.01). The G-308A variant was detected by PCR amplification and Nco-1 digestion. Results: Homozygous mutant genotype (AA) (p =. <0.001: OR =. 3.24: 95% CI =. 2.15-4.89) and mutant allele (A) (p =. <0.001: OR =. 3.04: 95% CI =. 2.08-4.43) of TNF-α was significantly less frequently observed in the control population as compared to study group. Furthermore, on dividing the subjects into two groups according to the absence (TNF-1 allele) or presence of the mutant A (TNF-2) allele, significant results were obtained in most of the metabolic risk factors. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the G-308A polymorphism of the TNF-α gene may be independently associated with hypertension, leptin level and hypercholesterolemia leading to metabolic syndrome independent of Insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee H.H.-C.,Chemical Pathology Laboratory | Mak C.M.,Chemical Pathology Laboratory | Poon G.W.-K.,Queen Mary Hospital | Wong K.-Y.,Queen Mary Hospital | Lam C.-W.,University of Hong Kong
Journal of Medical Screening | Year: 2014

Objectives: To evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing an expanded newborn screening programme for hyperphenylalaninemias due to 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS) deficiency in Hong Kong. Setting: Regional public hospitals in Hong Kong providing care for cases of inborn errors of metabolism. Methods: Implementational and operational costs of a new expanded mass spectrometry-based newborn screening programme were estimated. Data on various medical expenditures for the mild and severe phenotypic subtypes were gathered from a case cohort diagnosed with PTPS deficiency from 2001 to 2009. Local incidence from a previously published study was used. Results: Implementation and operational costs of an expanded newborn screening programme in Hong Kong were estimated at HKD 10,473,848 (USD 1,342,801) annually. Assuming a birthrate of 50,000 per year and an incidence of 1 in 29,542 live births, the medical costs and adjusted loss of workforce per year would be HKD 20,773,207 (USD 2,663,232). Overall the annual savings from implementing the programme would be HKD 9,632,750 (USD 1,234,968). Conclusions: Our estimates show that implementation of an expanded newborn screening programme in Hong Kong is costeffective, with a significant annual saving for public expenditure. © The Author(s) 2014. Source

Fogarty R.D.,Flinders University | Abhary S.,Flinders University | Javadiyan S.,Flinders University | Kasmeridis N.,Flinders University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2012

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels are elevated in diabetes and likely contribute to diabetic complications such as retinopathy and nephropathy. The DDAH enzymes are primarily responsible for ADMA metabolism. Polymorphisms in the dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) 1 and 2 genes have been previously associated with serum ADMA levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We sought to determine whether they are also associated with ADMA levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Serum ADMA concentrations were measured in 196 individuals with T1DM. Twenty-six tag SNPs in the DDAH1 gene and 10 in the DDAH2 gene were genotyped. One SNP in the DDAH1 gene (rs3738111) and one in the DDAH2 gene (rs805293) showed a correlation with serum ADMA levels; however, neither survived correction for multiple testing. We found limited evidence that genetic polymorphisms in DDAH genes influence serum ADMA levels in individuals with T1DM. This differs to findings in T2DM and may be due to underlying differences in the cohorts or to fundamental differences in the pathogenesis of the two types of diabetes. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Mak C.M.,Chemical Pathology Laboratory | Lee H.-C.H.,Chemical Pathology Laboratory | Chan A.Y.-W.,Chemical Pathology Laboratory | Lam C.-W.,University of Hong Kong
Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences | Year: 2013

Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders caused by a defect in a metabolic pathway, leading to malfunctioning metabolism and/or the accumulation of toxic intermediate metabolites. To date, more than 1000 different IEM have been identified. While individually rare, the cumulative incidence has been shown to be upwards of 1 in 800. Clinical presentations are protean, complicating diagnostic pathways. IEM are present in all ethnic groups and across every age. Some IEM are amenable to treatment, with promising outcomes. However, high clinical suspicion alone is not sufficient to reduce morbidities and mortalities. In the last decade, due to the advent of tandem mass spectrometry, expanded newborn screening (NBS) has become a mandatory public health strategy in most developed and developing countries. The technology allows inexpensive simultaneous detection of more than 30 different metabolic disorders in one single blood spot specimen at a cost of about USD 10 per baby, with commendable analytical accuracy and precision. The sensitivity and specificity of this method can be up to 99% and 99.995%, respectively, for most amino acid disorders, organic acidemias, and fatty acid oxidation defects. Cost-effectiveness studies have confirmed that the savings achieved through the use of expanded NBS programs are significantly greater than the costs of implementation. The adverse effects of false positive results are negligible in view of the economic health benefits generated by expanded NBS and these could be minimized through increased education, better communication, and improved technologies. Local screening agencies should be given the autonomy to develop their screening programs in order to keep pace with international advancements. The development of biochemical genetics is closely linked with expanded NBS. With ongoing advancements in nanotechnology and molecular genomics, the field of biochemical genetics is still expanding rapidly. The potential of tandem mass spectrometry is extending to cover more disorders. Indeed, the use of genetic markers in T-cell receptor excision circles for severe combined immunodeficiency is one promising example. NBS represents the highest volume of genetic testing. It is more than a test and it warrants systematic healthcare service delivery across the pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases. There should be a comprehensive reporting system entailing genetic counselling as well as short-term and long-term follow-up. It is essential to integrate existing clinical IEM services with the expanded NBS program to enable close communication between the laboratory, clinicians, and allied health parties. In this review, we will discuss the history of IEM, its clinical presentations in children and adult patients, and its incidence among different ethnicities; the history and recent expansion of NBS, its cost-effectiveness, associated pros and cons, and the ethical issues that can arise; the analytical aspects of tandem mass spectrometry and post-analytical perspectives regarding result interpretation. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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