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Arish, Egypt

Ramesh Kumar A.,Chemical Laboratory | Riyazuddin P.,University of Madras
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2012

The seasonal variation of redox potential (Eh) and redox species such as As(V)/As(III), Cr(VI)/Cr(III), Fe(III)/Fe(II), NO3-/NO2-, and Se(VI)/Se(IV) were studied in a shallow groundwater for a period of three years (May, 2004-January, 2007). The study area was Chrompet area of Chennai city, India. Groundwater samples from 65 wells were monitored for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and major ions during pre-(May) and post-monsoon (January) seasons. The objective of the study was to gain insight into the temporal variation of the redox species due to groundwater recharge and to identify the redox reactions controlling the measured Eh of the groundwater. The study revealed that the shallow groundwater was " oxic" with DO ranging between 0.25 and 5.00mgL -1, and between 0.38 and 5.05mgL -1 during pre-(May, 2004) and post-monsoon (January, 2005) seasons, respectively. The measured Eh (with respect to standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) ranged between 65 and 322mV, and between 110 and 330mV during pre- and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. During post-monsoon seasons, DO and Eh increased in most of the wells due to groundwater recharge. The calculated Eh using the redox couples As(V)/As(III), NO3-/NO2-, O 2/H 2O and Se(VI)/Se(IV) neither agreed among themselves nor with the measured Eh during all the seasons. It shows that in the shallow groundwater, the various redox couples are in disequilibrium among themselves and with the Pt electrode. However, 41% (n=122) of the Eh values calculated from Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple agreed with the measured Eh within ±30mV, the uncertainty of Pt-electrode measurement. The post-monsoon seasons showed higher values of As(V)/As(III) and Se(VI)/Se(IV) compared to the pre-monsoon seasons, whereas Fe(III)/Fe(II) behaved in the opposite manner. This pattern of variation is consistent with the increased oxidizing nature, as shown by the higher DO and Eh values observed during post-monsoon seasons. The results showed that the Fe(III)/Fe(II) is the dominant redox couple to equilibrate with Pt electrode. However, the measured Eh can only be used in a semi-qualitative way and can be interpreted with other redox indicating parameters. The measured Eh though represent 'mixed potential', is a useful indicator for characterizing the speciation and temporal variation of redox sensitive species. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Kumar A.R.,Chemical Laboratory | Riyazuddin P.,University of Madras
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Chromium species (Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(III)-organic) in groundwater of a tannery contaminated area were monitored during pre- and post-monsoon seasons for a period of 3 years (May 2004 to January 2007). The objectives of the study were (1) to investigate the temporal variation of chromium species and other matrix constituents and (2) to study the redox processes associated with the temporal variation of chromium species. Samples were collected from 15 dug wells and analyzed for chromium species and other constituents. The results showed that the groundwater was relatively more oxidizing during post-monsoon periods than the pre-monsoon periods. Except one sample, the concentration of chromium species were found in the order of Cr(VI)>Cr(III)>Cr(III)-organic complexes during all the pre- and post-monsoon periods. In most of the wells, the concentrations of Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(III)-organic decreased during post-monsoon periods compared to their pre-monsoon concentrations. However, the Cr(VI)/CrTotal ratio still increased and the Cr(III)/Cr Total ratio decreased during post-monsoon periods in most of the samples. The possible mechanisms for the temporal variation of chromium species were (1) Fe(II) reduction of Cr(VI) vs oxidation of Fe(II) by dissolved oxygen and (2) oxidation of Cr(III) by Mn(IV). © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Kumar A.R.,Chemical Laboratory | Riyazuddin P.,University of Madras
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2010

Chromium speciation in groundwater of a tannery polluted area was investigated for the distribution of chromium species and the influence of redox couples such as Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II). Speciation analysis was carried out by ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC)-methylisobutylketone (MIBK) procedure. The groundwater samples were analyzed for Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(III)-organic complexes. The APDC could not extract the Cr(III)-organic complexes, but HNO3 digestion of the groundwater samples released the Cr(III)-organic complexes. The groundwater of the area is relatively oxidizing with redox potential (Eh) and dissolved oxygen (DO) ranged between 65 and 299 mV and 0.25 and 4.65 mg L-1, respectively. The Fe(II) reduction of Cr(VI) was observed in some wells, but several wells that had Fe(II)/Cr(VI) concentrations more than the stoichiometric ratio (3:1) of the reduction reaction also had appreciable concentration of Cr(VI). This could partly be due to the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) by DO. It appears that the occurrence of Mn more than the Fe(II) concentration was also responsible for the presence of Cr(VI). Other reasons could be the Fe(II) complexation by organic ligands and the loss of reducing capacity of Fe(II) due to aquifer materials, but could not be established in this study. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Kumar A.R.,Chemical Laboratory | Riyazuddin P.,University of Madras
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

Speciation of selenium in groundwater is essential from the viewpoint of toxicity to organisms and biogeochemical cycling. Selenium speciation in groundwater is controlled by aquifer redox conditions, microbial transformations, dissolved oxygen (DO) and other redox couples. A suburban area of Chennai city in India, where improper waste disposal measures have been practiced is selected for this study. Se(IV), Se(VI) and other hydrochemical parameters were monitored in shallow ground water during pre- and post-monsoon seasons for a period of three years. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of groundwater recharge on selenium speciation. The concentration of Se(IV), and Se(VI) ranged between 0.15-0.43μgL-1 and 0.16-4.73μgL-1, respectively. During post-monsoon period the concentration of Se(IV), and Se(VI) ranged between 0.15-1.25μgL-1 and 0.58-10.37μgL-1, respectively. Se(VI) was the dominant species of selenium during the pre- and post-monsoon periods. During the post-monsoon periods, leaching of selenium from soil was more effective due to the increased oxidizing nature of the groundwater as indicated by the DO and redox potential (Eh) measurements. This finding has important implications on the behavior of selenium in groundwater, and also on the health of people consuming groundwater from seleniferous areas. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Samanta D.,Polymer Division | Murali A.,Polymer Division | Jaya Prakash A.,Leather Processing Division | Nagaraju P.,Polymer Division | And 6 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2013

In the present paper, we report the non-covalent immobilization of pH and temperature responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-methacrylic acid on a protein collagen (type I) and a leather surface. The polymer has N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) functionality that is responsible for the thermo-responsive characteristics and carboxylic acid/carboxylate functionality that facilitates the pH-responsive behaviour. We were able to tune the clouding behaviour of the polymer in water from 15 to 40 °C by changing the pH from 4.5 to 5.7. The binding of the polymer to a native collagen protein (type I) or leather is facilitated by the carboxylate groups that form coordination complexes with chromium(iii). The polymer was successfully used in the retanning and coating of leather. The polymer-coated leather as well as the polymer-grafted collagen clearly show thermo-responsive characteristics. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013. Source

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